Analysis of Production System Design and Management in the Soft Drink Industry


In more definite terms production can be describes as the process or set of action planning as well as organized to change some set of input components into the desired set of output elements in a nutshell production system in the scientific sense is made up of impute the changing of transformation process  putout     and elements of control and monitoring devices (Imagh 1980)

Production as a matter of fact ahs to do with the development of a specified course for a production system over a drawn out duration while production management tends to investigate means or ways of optimizing the production system.  To optimize the production system is achieve  the best possible and this can be said to be the very pillar if goals towards the production of goods and services.

Mark ran Thyers and other investigation found that there is no doubt that here exists some relationship between production management and production system design.  One of the relationship is that  while production management deals with the management of the available physical resources that are vital in production of goods and services in the required quantities meet market requirements this cab only be achieved with an efficient production system design

Though production management has long been associated with the manufacturing sector the techniques of it are now being applied towards of service and the non manufacturing sector consequent upon this development the meaning of production management can be broadened to cover systems for the creation of both manufacturing and service organization the only difference between manufacturing organizational and service  organizations  is that product of the service organizations are perishable by nature.

Production management can be brotten into the design function and the operation function (Peter Shoeshit 1983)

The design function cover decisions as to performance requirement and desired out put of the system.  Decision on the different production facilities that are require and their location the method of production to be adopted and the management process to be introduced.

The operating function  covers production Scheduling and control inventory management and qualify control.

production management emphatically deals with production system design and production but this does not mean that we will over look the planning factor which we regard as production planning.



  1. In any business organization, there is the planning committee which is made up of the top executive and a few select staff of the organization that are expects in planning techniques. The chief executive and the head of the finance committee are responsible for the corporate planning.
  2. The sales manager is to take care of the marking plan and in an organization where there is a market research manager, he will be responsible for the marketing mix.
  3. Every thing to do with financial plan is handled by the chief finance officer, the chief accountant and where the occasion permits, the treasurer.
  4. Research and development plan is the responsibility of the chief executive and the manager in charge of research and development.
  5. Plan of manufacturing is executed by the chief executive conjunction with the manager responsible for production planning and control, production engineering purchasing and quality control and inventory control.
  6. Plan on personal is the responsibility of the personal manager or human resources manager helped by all the other executives.

It has to be noted that on the various planning committee, the heads departments have ex-officio members who are charged with preparation and presentation of yearly reports to the planning committee in charge of their departments that will aid the operating of the particular division.

First on the planning profiles is the corporate planning which is followed by the marketing and manufacturing plan. The above three are assigned priority based on the project profits of the organization, available finance and personnel. For research and development, money is allocated based on the set goals desired by the organizaiton.



These are the steps in the planning process under system approach (Kasf & Rosenzweing)

  1. Appraising the future, technological and social environment.
  2. Assessing the long-run values, interests and aspirations of managers and other participants.
  1. Visualizing the desired socio-economic role of the organization in its future environment.
  2. Designing a corporate strategy(objectives plus basic policies) which will match future
  3. Designing a corporate strategy(objectives plus basic policies) which will match future environmental opportunity, values and aspirations, desired socio-economic role and organisation resources.
  4. Developing specific objectives and strategic plans which will direct the efforts of the total organization.
  5. Translating comprehensive business plans, into functional programme on a more detailed basis-production, research, design and development marketing and distribution etc.
  6. Developing more detailed planning and control of resources utilization with in each of these functional areas-always related as the overall long range or strategic corporation flow whereby members of the organization can actively participate in business planning process(designing an information feed-back and control system to determine the progress and problem in the implementation of business plans).

Note that under the system approach, we have a planning action control cycle we also have an integrated system and a network of information flow in all direction throughout the planning-action control cycle.(Gray leifman 1980).


  1. Planning the plan( study opportunities threats and prepare other premises)
  2. Specify the objectives of the enterprise, forecasting future prospects.

(b) Measuring the gaps between aspiration ( objective) and projections (forecasts).

  1. Developing strategic to fill the major gaps (identify alternative courses of action to achieve objectives examine, evaluate and choose alternative to follow.
  2. Develop detailed plans in major functional areas to fit the strategies; Research and development, production, marketing and promotions, finance personnel.
  3. Organize to carry out plans, starting operations introducing necessary controls.
  4. Review, evaluate results
  5. Recycle planning programme.



It is essential for an organization or a company to maintain a systematic or continuous close watch on its environment to identify suitable charges. Where it can not do this, it becomes necessary to at least try to provide answers to few questions that emphasize charging opportunity  and possible risks or threats.

Some of the identification questions are as follows;

  1. What are the essential economics and technical feature of the industry in which the company participates? In other words, it is imperatively that you know industry’s economics and technical features.
  2. What are the apparent or obvious trends suggestive of future change in economic and technical features? The physical features of products can be examined against the background of service ability and simplicity in trend; consumer goods are viewed against products of rival industries; innovations or changes on the products itself due to research and development.
  3. What is the nature or scope of competition within and across industry? The competition can be towards a very small market which may be considered very insignificant by the big companies.
  4. What is required for success in the competition in the company’s industry? As is the case in every industry, there are vital tasks that must be under taken to withstand competition and survival. These fundamental tasks may be in the form of identification of risks or possible causes of failure or opportunity for the company to fully concentrate in the efficient performance.

For instance, in the fashion sector, for women (weave-on) style, design and colour are the most essential selling points. In some cases, the relationship between retailers and dealers determines the success or failure of the business. In the electronics business which requires after-sales services the rendering of this service will enable the dealer to stand in competition.



Plans are of little or no value when they are not followed and carried out to the desired extent practicable. Since there is a broad based participation in planning and formal approval of  plans discussed there is overall recognition all through the company of the operational commitment towards measurement of performance. Each heads of department has drawn his own programme of accomplishments within the context and commitments of the rest of the business. Inaugurations of organized planning to a large extent introduced some difference between unit plans and performance. As the years progress the differences continue to lessen, in the long run, the mastering of the processes and procedures to a large extent lessens the differences between plan and accomplishment. Difference can only then be introduced when circumstance beyond, the control of a particular component introduces a change in performance. But an efficient flow of information will ensure that the need for and the consequences of such variation are promptly noted and projections modified to accommodate the changes.

Organized planning normally sets goals quite beyond those undertaken without it, therefore productive capabilities are set in motion to properly effectuate the plan. The manager then knows where he is heading to and can chart his course accordingly and on time too. Since his plans and aspirations has been correlated with those of others, his plan is less likely to be altered by mistakes on the part of his colleagues or their failures to project positively. The manager faces the most difficult decision on implementation when he is faced with the problem of deciding when and to what extent he is to revise his plans when circumstances adversely tamper the premise on which his plans were predicted. He would consider it unwise to loose the benefits of the commitments and accomplishments already made in compliance with the programme of production. But if direction has changed much, sticking to the old programme of production may turn into serious Problem or liabilities in the future.  There is no defined answer tot this problem.  The only escape is to always apply accepted but sound principles of management as expressed over 200 years ago by publishes syrus: it is a bad plan that admits modification it is always good or incorporate    flexibility in the original plan so that any change can be absorbed by the advantage of minimum turn around time with less erasure of the  old programme of production


Longer range certainly in production is not all that essential to a successful comprehensive planning what is of greater importance is awareness of recent trends into the future with all these regularly reviewed projection  and lead time of advance planning and action is reduced but with dependence on forecast enhance .  The basic functions and benefits of the entire process are realized when the programme of implementation is made to be sensitive to subtle shifts in the wind ands when it is organized 50 that rapid modification and adjustments are made when worth while and practicable.  Certainly like longer ranger more reliable and more comprehensive are projections the more definite the planning of business operations can be.

Planning in general terms considering product groups special promotions bends in work force ability and changes in resources suppliers is referred to as aggregate scheduling.

The objectives of aggregate planning is to properly allocate system cap city men material and equipments over a give time.

Look and barrow identified two basic strategies in production planning  the two are the passive and active strategies in the passive strategy  the form 60 organization accepts demand as it stands with out making any attempt to change it. This is often the case with new or small scale company with small capitalization that my not have the funds or personnel to counter and prevailing demand condition but only to modify price

The firm in a passive role to satisfy demand by altering the size and combination of the variables comprising of size of workforce rate of product inventory level sub contracting and product mix. Pure and mixed variables are form  used to  indicate used.  Pure strategy  is when only one of the variable  is changes with others constant in varying the output.

The authors lack farrow noted that for labour intensive production demand  variation can be checked by either increasing or decreasing the workforce.  Another pure strategy is to very the production rate while all the other variable are constant.  Its effects on the workforce is to course under  utilization (idle time) or over utilization (over time)

The other pure strategies employed to satisfy demand are to draw inventories during low demand

According to peter shoe smith sub-contracting can be used to satisfy demand over some minimum level.

The active strategy is adopted when the firm lakes bold steps towards influencing their environment or towards adapting to their environment.  The firm can influence demand within their environment by selecting a countercyclical product mix or create  order backlogs when demand are low sales can be increased through price cuts campaigns and sales promotions or through managerial pressure on sales forces.

Order backlog is good maintaining production stability.  But its success depend on the willingness of the customers to accept the backlog time

Since production in physical terms has to do with the determination of  optimum combination of  input level it then become necessary to transform all input qualities to a common scale of value

In the case of two independent variables finding the best maximum product combination given a fixed budget will be first calculate a number of feasible input combinations that will have the same cost and then determine the combination that will yield the maximum product.

Horst (1975) who is an authority on this aspect summaries as  follows if Y is a function for two input factors X1 and X2 which have unit cost G and C2 respectively if there is also a fixed cost Co for all other fixed factors the production function will be given by

Y       =       F(X1X)

The total cost C is given by

C       =       Co = C1X1+ C2 X2

The mathematical objectives is to maximize total product for Y for a fixed budget that is for a constant value for C with objective the constant function can be rearranged as CO +G X1+C2X2-K=then  multiply by an artificial variable to obtain X (CO +C1 X1+C2X2-K  =       0

We can now write the production function as

Y       =       F (U1X2)+۸ (CO +G1 X1+C2X2-K)

In finding the maximum product given the cost restriction by the standard method of differentiating partially with respect to each variable X1 X2 and setting the partial derivation equal to zero

Dy     =       df      +۸ C1           =0

Dx1                      dx1

Dy     =       df      +۸ C2           =0

Dx2                      dx2

Dy    =

(CO +G X1+C2X2-K       =       0

at this point all factors of production are exhausted to produce the maximum product



The significant point to note is that each company has a different system design depending on the products and the production facilities available this point is given adequate consideration during the design of a production system

These include

–        Complexity of product

–        Length of cycle time

–        Repeatability of work

–        Forward notice available

–        Dependence on outside supplies and subcontractors

–        Seasonal nature of the workload

–        Availability and quality of information in capacity and work load

production system design includes the following function input selection process design and output design some authors on management like Glueck is of the opinion that  the feed back process which is very vital in production system design the design and control of a system generally takes account of inventory control quality control production schedules and overall operations of the system and their control.


Looking at the above diagram  it become clear that modern scientific production management considers production system as a combination of imputs the transformation process  out puts and the control devices.

When decision have been taken on what is to be produced manpower resources carefully deployed and a sound flexible organizational structure put in place only then can be goals of the organization be achieved.

A product system is a set of components relating to production that are set out to accomplish a planning production goals.  Designing includes combining features and most of the time involves the preparation of  preliminary sketches

The design function accomplishes this Baner etal made it clear that the design function is important in establishing relationship between the different phases of a system. Liking them together and bringing out the composite whole.  Design function in  a production system in general includes the arrangement of all physical facilities for production.  It also embraces the organization of people and communication network put in place provide information regarding the process

Design function becomes fairly straight forward when it is to do with establishing a new business operation however the scope of  system design also covers the function of redesg assessing existing system and looking out towards  a change.

System design can also involve the identification of materials energy and information flow.  All these elements are facets of very system and subsystem consideration flow concepts facilitates thinking about fundamental division of  operating systems.

The material aspect of any system includes the facilities involved and raw material if any which flow through the process.  It is improtant to design a system which enhances the acquisition of raw materials and or components necessary for processing into finishing products the system design should also appreciate the essence of the transportation media required to  move materials to the processing site

The processing has to be designed in terms of construction of new facilities or maintenance of existing one. Plant layout materials and handling equipment are all integral part of design function .  the distribution of finished products is also to be considered.  But if finished products are raw materials in subsequent processing operation the problem of distribution become very straight forward if the above become the case appropriate system design can then be evolved.

Since some form of energy is required in every operating system the energy factors is also to be considered. These  forms of energy  can be in the form of coal or electricity which is  available or generated by the firm power plant.  The process may involve the use of natural gas petroleum or any other.  The energy facilitates   the operating system



Because of the importance attached to the facilities required for a production system decision on them cannot be casual.  Glueck maintains that a detailed work sheet be used to list all the facilities required facilities include all fixtures tools space building and land that are needed to start production.  All the above item make up what is called fixed assets of the business and therefore need to be carefully guarded.



Description of facilities Use of facility Summary of monthly cost Estimated cost of facility Record of action taken
Gas and water
Type writer


The worksheet provides the space environment of facilities as well space for the description of the  facilities their monthly cost overall cost and the action taken towards this.

The use to which a facility is put will determine the other items in the list this is because one facility can be used for several purposes the several examples of use includes the following:

  1. Storage for raw materials purchased part finished product
  2. Manufacture one or more classes depending on nature the product.
  3. Shipping and delivery
  4. Sales
  5. Office

If a facility is used for more than one purposes it is to divided among the various purpose and then listed under each use.  When every detail including the estimated cost has been put down the designers will then determine the cost of the facility requirement.

The next step is the proposal sheet which Glueck Presents as follows: (Howard Nceland 1975)



Description of product or service disgrams illustration figures charts, layouts

Summary of market approach

Segment of market aimed for channel through which to be used retail wholesale, distributors, factors, brokers etc.

Summary of financial estimation

Approximation of annual sales aimed for  anticipated profit on this volume estimated starting capital requirement estimated operating cost estimated contingency funds.


where and how the products or service is now being used projection of low the product will be in the market.  Statement of long range and short-range objective.

Description of yourself in the business intending strategy for meeting completion statement of the character and business image.


statement of basis selling approach retail down to door canvassing, wholesales, brokers, distributors, share of market expected to control and segment of intended market statement of methods to be used in meeting sales target


Description of organization statement describing key positions and   identifying personnel to fill then organization chart showing needed function and relationship administration production and sales equipment and space required kind of production to be done-in-house and sub-contacting


Total capital needed and safety factor profit expected and time of receipts.  Entrepreneur initial personal capital investment additional capital sought.

Proposal sheet

Prince bill of materials with prices sealed to various product quantities list of tooling required and estimated cost.

Layout of proposed plan, supported by manufacturing flow chart including estimated cost of product sales schedules.

Projected profit and loss statement and balance sheet for the first two years. fixed asset acquisitions schedule month by month advertising cost

Anticipated time schedule for staring the business

The proposal  sheet as a working document acts as a reference frame from the planning stage to the implementation stage of the business. It therefore has to be properly and carefully prepared. The new entrepreneur that makes assumption and predictions regarding sales volume anticipated profits and time of realization with the proposal sheet he can then move to the financial institution for loans or overdraft.  The proposal sheet therefore helps the new entrepreneur to asses the accuracy and precision of his planning process as well s providing the reference point for outside investors to check the viability of the business.



The acquisition of the necessary inputs of a system is the foundation to a successful start of production


Job description:    It is essential to give the description of arch job in detail by stating the responsibilities attached to the job and noting how each job relates to the other within the production system.  Job  description enable the designer to match personnel to specific functions since it enables the designer to appreciate the responsibilities of the job the skill needed the functions to be performed and the qualification if any that is required.

RECRUITMENT :Recruitment is the next phase in labour in some instance the entrepreneur designs application forms which   Glueck noted is an added cost to the business. The advantages of designing  application forms is greater than its disadvantages shoe smith outlined two basis part an application forms should have.

Application from have to be precise and applicable to what the organizaiton desires

contacts for the applicants can be made in the various media but one important point is that the recruitment officer should not waste time interviewing unqualified persons

interviewing is a process of exchange of information between the employer and the job seeker to find out if the seeker is fit and qualified for the job.

Icahn is of the impression that it gives an adequate background information of experience skill qualification and desired salary of the applicant such personal traits as intelligence enthusiasm ability to communicate effusively and  appearance can be ascertained from the interviewing process. Icahn further puts forward the factors to be considered in interviewing:

  1. Selection of congenial environment for the interview ie, conducting it where there is a lack of constant interruptions such as telephone calls etc.
  2. Questions should be posed clearly and precisely asked factors such as dexterity should also be considered here. Open ended questions should be asked relating to the job, so that you can ascertain his ability to perform the functions to be assigned to him
  3. Applicant should be provide with a technical test especially those applicants whose jobs required some expertise such as confidential secretaries typists quality controller machinists etc. The practical test will enable the interviewer determine his ability and skill on the job
  4. If the applicant is found to be suitable for the job his reference should be taken valid able the authenticity. Reference can be requested if the applicant is handling the company money.  It is improtant that such employee be bonded and in addition a security deposit equal be the amount of money that will be in his possession be paid by him. The organization can also ask for a surety or Guarantor a an additional security for the business the  Generator should be as person of honour



To acquire raw material depends on a number of factors for instance the quantity depend on the scale of production to be  undertaken and the quality will depend on cost of acquiring each unit of raw material.

In the acquisition of raw materials tenders are normally put forward for suppliers of the raw materials the best offer is taken but this does not necessarily mean the least costing raw materials supplier the cost of raw material should be costed to that of production to enable the exercise of cost control in acquisition.


Banner etal (1996) includes the factor of people as an energy  resources.  Both physical and mental energy are required to operate a production system.  Electricity gas or petroleum can be described in terms of flow concepts  which are under constant inspection by system designers. However they are concerned primarily with the energy of power system itself and not the integration of the energy system with other sub-system and the whole.

It is difficult to asses people or the work force in terms of flow concept but in the real sense it is appropriate.  There may be a continual   flow of people or workers in terms of shifts where 24 hours 7day weeks are scheduled.

Another basic element in any system is information which facilitates interrelationship among sub-systems and provides the linkage necessary to develop system information flow may developed to flow with the flow of materials.  Requisition order bills  lading packing slips inspection reports may represents information flow concerned with the acquisition of raw material requirement.

The accounting process requires a flow of information towards the development of income statements and balance sheets for tax purposes of stockholders report or both.  Many data processing system have been developed on the basis of periodic batch processing more and more systems are now being developed which call for flow concepts approximating real time activity that is the action or activity to be considered as recorded at the time it happens and action taken at the time.

A good number of system designers in many cases focus attention on information flow in the event of manufacturing faclities remaining fixed and layout requirements being indeed the only variables that will remain are raw materials energy (in the form of power and /or people and information (in the from of plans and instructions) system design in such cases must concentrate on the arrangement of people and the use of information flow to optimize decision making within the system under study.

Flow of information is the      critical element for systems where manufacturing ands material flow are nonexistent like in the service and governmental organization information most flow to key decision point where action is taken with regard to a service to he performed by the organization in question.  System in this case is defined on the basis of flow of information to appropriate decision points sub-system are in turn  identified    and can be interrelated to define the total system.



When a production unite are arranged and operated as system four basis management  stags can be identified

These four stages are

–        System determination

–        Design and creation

–        Operation and control

–        Review and evaluation

The stages are closely elated to each other even through some authors like  Banner etal included design and creation stages in the system determination.

Based on the type of production to be undertaken the first thing is no make a decision to create the production system.  Next is to arrange the system in combination that will produce the desired good.  After the design stage the system is operated by manipulating the various input of energy raw material operating inputs are allocated according to the plan e.g.  the supervisors may decide on the kind of invoice to use when customers should be billed when the machine is to be repaired and when customers should work overtime.

Evidence shows that the more the operation of a  system is preplanned the more automatic it becomes some parts of the planning required can be eliminated during operations when the system is designed with some predetermined infusion and with more predictable result.

Given certain input the possessor will give desired outputs or operate within the given limits at this is the basic theory of system.  But it has to be noted that an organization is not a predictable system.  Its operation is not determined by equation as it is bound to change within limits when component of the system are rearrange or when the input are reallocated.

A more advanced type of productive system has an inbuilt means of control ie. A sensor that measure output or related characteristic compares the measurement with existing standards and an activating unit that adjust inputs to correct the deficiencies indicated. The main objective is to control all variable to enable the system stabilize about its ideal equilibrium point.  This objective can only be possible when the standard can be determined and the operating values measurable.

The next stage is to ascertain whether the system has operated effectively and/or efficiently the effectiveness of a system lie in it having accomplished it objectives when efficiency has to do with the relation of inputs to outputs.

A system can be effective without being efficient or can transform inputs efficiently without  accomplishing the objective (e.g. converting more clothing materials) to suits when the majority do not wear suits)

In a situation where effectiveness and efficiency oppose each other the wisest action in take is to find a balance point between them.  When this is done the system is then said to have been optimized.  It has be remembered that there is always a question relating to quality of the product and the cost of production

At periodic materials in thee life cycle of a system, there is review and evaluation that may result to changes in design of the present system or lead to recommendations for a change to be incorporated in future system. Information for  review and evaluation process is often gathered with control data for operation. The feed-back of operating information provided the evidence of how the system is doing and whether there is any requirement for change in design

Audit analysis may bring about changes in design while action pertaining to control causes change to occur in operating input.



When operating a productive system the improtant thing is to analyze all the units of inputs with a view to deciding on the combination that  will provide the most effective and efficient output in the process an analysis of the scheduling in this case is the timing of imputs relative to outputs.

Another important part of the operation is control which is an analysis of operation with respect to plan finally an analysis may be made to find out where the system is not working effectively and efficiently if at all.  In the course  of the process a study has to be made about the nature and kind of information should be provided to accomplish the type of analysis required.

An abstract representation of a system or model building is an important process in system review.  It enables one be understand complex relationship and helps to improve the quality of decision making.  Housemen peters maintains that the importance of model building is that it is being used to capture the essence and not the detail of the system it permits experimentation among various decision strategies to  test the results of assigning different values to the variables involved models are appropriate representation that can be extremely useful in analysis .

An example of the analysis of a system can be given of a waste recycling programme for an urban area.

Objective:   Implement a waste recycling programme for Owerri translation of objective:

Design and create for Owerri a waste recycling system that is capable of

  1. Efficiently collecting 80 to 95% of all refuse wastes in Owerri urban
  2. Effectively channeling all the refuse wastes to faclities capable of sorting them into biodegradable and non-biodegradable categories for recycling into products that will be of use to the community at large variables.
  1. Present technology recycling facilities cost approximately N30 million to build
  2. Availability of waste- about 30 thousand tomes of waste weekly
  3. Only some percentage of refuses wastes can be recycled legal constraints- limitation as to the scope of operation involved.
  4. public support


  1. Investigating various collection schemes

–        Central disposal locations

–        Compressors/ processors

–        Silos

–        Household waste containers

  1. Removal schemes

–        Trucks

–        Conveyors

–        Incinerators

–        Compressors /processor

  1. Investigation if future requirements and opportunities

–        Pending disposal legislation

–        Techniques of disposal and recovery

–        Growth in consumption

–        List of agencies and organizations dealing with disposal and recovery


  1. Investigation the various kinds of collecting sorting with processing scheme. Alternative course of action
  2. Collect sort and sell to an outside contractor for recycling
  3. Collect sort and recycle at a plant in another town
  4. Contract the collection and sorting to outside agencies criteria for selection.

How effective is the programme in making use of the greatest percentage of the refuse waste to recycle into finished product and at what cost.

Another criteria is how difficult the programme will  be to implement with regards to time and its degree of change form the present system.

All the alternative seem. To be feasible since they all will achieve the objective that ahs been set within the constraints outline. They now have to be tested to determined which alternative rate  the highest in relation to the selection criteria.  This is to find out which alternative will recycle the greatest percentage of   refuse waste at the lowest cost with least difficult in implementation.

At the synthesis stage it is necessary to develop a programme alternative which may include features of all alternatives or as the alternatives are reviewed in the trade off synthesis process it will be possible to generate new alternatives or to refine some of those which have been suggested



Since the employee is important in the operation of the system  the employee therefore has to be evaluated periodically to assess their  contribution in the operations of the system this is to find out if their performance is up to the standard set by the organizaiton.  This process forms part of the   system review.  A yardstick which is to be made know to all the employees within the system is set up to aid in measuring the performance of the employees

Kooutz in his opinion maintained that a performance appraisal from will contain evaluation questions regarding  all aspects of the job including interpersonal interactions among the workers. The total score which is recorded has to equal 100%

There are numerous management techniques for the appraisal of the employees performance one of which is management by objective.  The technique clearly specifies the major and minor objective of the organization.  The function of arch employee is categorized as to the objective he/she is to attain.  A target is normally set for the employee and ie. Is appraised by measuring the extent to which the  objectives are attained according to the set targets. This  techniques which help the owner as the employee to ascertain their respective contribution to the company also has room for recording required improvement on the performance appraisal from for prompt corrections.


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