The Study Of Motivation On Employee Performance

The Study Of Motivation On Employee Performance. (A Study Of Suleja Local Government Administration Niger State, Nigeria)

Suleja is a city in Niger state, Nigeria with a population of 216, 578 as at 2006 census. It is just at the north of Abuja. It is sometimes confused with the nearby city of Abuja due to its proximity and the fact that it was originally called Abuja before the Nigerian government aberration capital in 1976.

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It was established in the early 1800’s by Mohammed Makau, the last Hausa Emir of Zaria and his followers who were fleeing the Fulani Judaists engaged in the conquest of Nigeria. Zaria was one of the Hausa city/states of Northern Nigeria which were being conquest by the Fulani Judaists under their charismatic Shehu Usman Dan Fodio.

Apart from its closeness to the Nigerian federal capital, it is also recognized as a center of excellence for traditional West Africa pottery, namely the world famous Ladi Kwali pottery center, established by Michael Cardew in 1950. The leading exponent of this school of pottery was Dr. Ladi Kwali who received world wide acclaim for works the originals of which are on display worldwide.

Discoveries of ancient sculptures of the Nok culture, both of Suleja town and the Makabolo river bed, here help prove the influence of Nok son the Yoruba arid of like. Today Suleja is well known as an exporter of Ghazi pottery, cotton weaving and dying, with locally grown indigo and mat making are traditional activities, but farming remains the chief occupation local trade is primarily in agricultural products. In addition to the pottery center, a government secondary school and hospital are located in the town. The Dorben Polytechnic has a campus in Suleja.

The Zazzan, after warriors of the Fulani Jihad (holy war) captured Zaria (Zazzaus capital, 137 miles north-northeast) about 1804 Muhammed Makau, Sakin (king of Zazzau) led by many of the Hausa mobility to the Kore town of Zuba. Abuja (Jatau) his brother and successor as Saki in Zazzau founded Abuja town in 1828, began construction of its wall a year later and proclaimed himself the first emir of Abuja. With standing Zaria attacks the Abuja emirate remained an independent Hausa refuge. Trade with the Fulani emirate of Bida (to the west) and Zaria began in emir Abu Kwaka reign (1851 – 1877) but when Abuja’s leadership disrupted the trade route between Lokoja (100 miles) and Zaria in 1902, the British occupy the town Alluviatin mining began in emir Musa Angulu’s reign (1917 – 1944).

Suleja local government performance as a service organization depends on the level of motivation they have. The situation of efficiency and effectiveness of the organization rendering a good service to their customer is only possible with that aid of adequate motivation.



There are two basis of motivation namely;

  1. Intrinsic factors
  2. Extrinsic factors


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In this type of motivation the activity that the individual does has its own rewards. It is being embarked upon for the sake of accomplishing it.

The individual engage or participate in a particular activity in order to gain new ideas, concept and experience.

This is being achieved when he does it for personal interest not necessary for reward or punishment. It has to do with rewarding workers by other means than money e.g. praise and commendation (Anene, 2008).


This is extremely imposed motivation as a result of individual makes effort to achieve a success. He avoids bad behavior simple because of possible punishment that may be attached to the offence; he does something good because of the recommended rewards and activism purpose.

Based on the above Okpara, states that there are list of intrinsic and extrinsic variable that affect a workers motivation to perform.

The intrinsic factors are physical condition such as space light temperature etc and he recommended. Some motivating variable such as salary scales, group standard, leadership, feedback, resolves conflict and money. There are relationship between motivation and performance.

Motivation is responsible for what we do and how we perform.

Our persistence is an activity the vigor with which we pursue the activity is related to our level of motivation. Research has show that when motivation is too low performance will also be negatively affected. But when it is moderate it will result the best performance.



In discussing theories or view on motivation as held by different schools of though and eminent psychologist. We have selected and will also use the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of need. The theories explain the concepts.

According to Okafor (2009) the hierarchy of needs theory: one of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory, put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest and he concluded that when one set of need is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.



For self actualization

Esteem needs

Affiliation or acceptance need

Security or safety need

Physiological needs


These are the needs for sustaining human life such as food, water, shelter and sleep. Maslow took the position that until these needs is satisfied to the degree necessary to maintain life other needs will not motivate people.


These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of other fear of losing a job etc.


Since people are social being they need to belong, to be accepted by others. This refers to need for love, interaction, companionship etc.


According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves or by others. This kind of need produces such satisfactions as power, prestige, status and self confidence.


This is the apex of the hierarchy and is perhaps the most misunderstood and the most difficult to describe of Maslow’s concept.

It is the desire to realize one’s full potential “to become what one is capable of becoming” for many people this need is never fully realized because of the potential of man’s spirit which seems capable of limitless expansion.

Maslow’s concept of the existence of a hierarchy of needs has been tested by researchers who found little evidence to support it. They however found two levels of needs, ones relating to existence (survival) at the lower level, and all other needs grouped at the second level if the existence needs are not reasonable satisfied, the other need will not motivate. Also all the need of the lower level could be proponent at the same time and the same could be said about the various needs at the higher level.

Another widely accepted theory of motivation is the expectancy theory” as developed by Victor Vroom, he explains motivation as a product of the probability that a certain will lead to these values. This relationship is express mathematically as force valence x expectancy for a particular outcome which can be positive, negative or zero; expectancy is the probability of the given first level outcome says supervision job performance.

Similarly, Fredrick Herzberg formulated the two factors theory postulated that the primary determinants of employees satisfaction are intrinsic factors to the work that employee does, that is recognition, achievement, responsibility and achievement in personal growth in competence, these are called “motivators”. However, Herzberg said dissatisfaction has been determined by separate factors which he called hygiene factors. They included working condition, company policies, salaries and wages. Thus the theory suggests that job should enhance positive work.

Motivation on employee job satisfaction.



In the beginning of this chapter on x-ray of motivational theories was made which provide background knowledge in the subject of the project. We have laid emphasis on the following authors Fredrick believes that these factors alone are not sufficient without effective performance.

Employee is essential for the success of any organization, such performance and skill. But will the knowledge and skill passes by the individual employee are essential in determining performance.

An understanding of what motivates the individual is needed to reveal how ability and skill motivation and their potential released.

Similarly Dlumrim stated that a fundamental potential basis for motivating a worker to better action on performance is the satisfaction of his need and ambition. She lists it as follows security, recognition, praise and fair treatment she asserted that the achievement of these external and internal factors to work could serve as motives for staying on the job and subsequently to satisfaction at the desired level, could serve as an incentive to efficient and effective performance and perhaps high productivity. It can be deduced from Olumorim submission that a worker has needs and desires which has brings to the work place, the satisfaction of which could result in better job performance by him.

Dr. Etuk in his own contribution which was centered on them middle level personal in the Nigeria civil service can be motivated towards high job of needs he identified those needs as opportunity for promotion, responsibility, participation in discussion, making participation in setting goals and achievement on his job performance. One basic point that can be derived from his conclusion is that Nigeria workers have needs which they bring to work place. The satisfaction of such need bring good job performance and that managers should seek to satisfy subordinate needs so that to get them perform better on their assigned duties.

He stated that Mc Gregory’s theory is theory X and theory Y which have different concepts concerning manager’s option towards his subordinates. Through treats and through motivation by product of efforts directed towards organization objectives or goals.


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