Safety Management Programme in Manufacturing Firm

Safety Management Programme in Manufacturing Firm

Safety Management – With the development of trade and industry leading for the expansion of the appears to be getting wider and wider as more factories are established and major works of engineering construction are undertaken. Accident has become an industrial phenomenon, which constitutes one of the major human social and economic problems of modern industrialization that pervades all aspects of human endeavor.  And this is definitely the reason for variation in the definition  of the term. It is pertinent to note that the major areas of disagreement are accident in relation to injury and the placate of occurrences.  The oxford advance learners dictionary of event that happens unexpectedly and causes damage or harm.  This however, corresponds with Udeze (2000:241) that air accident is an unexpected event that is injurious to the worker. One thing peculiar with these two definitions is un-expectation and injury” Iwundu (1986:1) on his own said that accident is a mishap resulting in damage to properly or injury or death  to person certainly, the above definition terms to have ignored other aspect of an accident and dwells more on the end-of an accident.  It is sheer deviation from the views of Gilmer (1999:501).

ii.       That an accident is an injury or damaging event that interrupts the  completion an activity.  Gilmer succinctly observed the fact that accident need not be injurious before they are recognized.  This could be the reason why Riddley (1990:143) stated that

All accident is incident.

All incidents are not accident.

All injuries result from accident

All accident does not result in injury

As a fact, this has formed the based of differences among firms in reporting of accident some firms only report and record the injurious accidents and do all they can reduce and possibly eliminate their occurrences. While on the other hand certain other   firms only take cognizance of the non-injurious accidents and at the same firm try to avoid their occurrence as much as possible more importantly, there are firms, which note and record the two first class evidence is the firms under study.

In the words of the safety manager of the Nigeria brewery plc ninth mile and Golden Guinea breweries we take records of all accident in the industry irrespective of their nature (injurious and non injurious) because their aggregate effect show on the production cost and workers productivity from this we are able to deduce the two forms of accident which are injurious and non-injurious accident.  Despite all ramification and bearing in mind that it is only death that has no remedy, some experts believed that accident can be prevented if not totally eliminated and that is where industrial safety come in Eke (2000:71) in a journal titled “management in Nigeria” state that accident can be prevented if every one employed in the industry is safety conscious and vigilant, the risk are foreseen and necessary precautions taken.

That was why carry torch and Warrilow (1999:13) stated that health and safety is as important in an  office as in a factory.

According to them, constant absenteeism through poor working condition or accident or accident is costly for any company and people do not work as productively as is possible if they are ill, fired in an unsatisfactory environment and so it is in the company’s interest as well as the employees, that safety procedures be observed.  There fore accident prevention is an essential part of good management and good workmanship safety must be accepted as a definite aim of policy in industry and there must be the will, organization and resources to secure it.


This research which aim at the investigation into the impact of  safety management on workers performance, is survey study.  The research is done using government owned brewery industry (Golden Guinea breweries Umuahia and Nigeria brewery plc ninth mile corner, Enugu).

The school of though of the study denotes the constraints or impediments of it affected the researchers in the course of this study.  The collection of data as well as the successful completion of this study was not without some hitches as there are some constraints, which militated against the writing of the work first and forement, there was always competing a demand off time among the researchers lecture hours and private study periods.

Never the less, the researchers still found firm to meet the demands of the research work.

This area of study, again the nature of the manager’s job was also and impediment since they  often do not have specific day’s of the week.   It was difficult to meet them personally to administer questions and this invariably limited the study in aspect of collection of data.  There were also financial constraints, which contributed adversely in the school of though of the area, which would have been covered.

A longer school of though could have been covered for representation of the population.


Known causes of accidents can be prevented by simple instruction of the employees removal or reduction of hazards or  more protection Udeze (2000:248). This means that since the causes of accident can be eliminated as a result of the precautionary measure that are embarked upon especially against injurious accidents preventive measures do not only depend on the type of  industry but also on the type of involvement of one in the production process of any firm.

Obviously, it is not the same type of preventive measure taken  in gas producing industry that will also be taken in a brewery industry.

Consequently it is not the types of precautionary measures taken by an employee in the maintenance department of a firm will another staff of the same but in different department taken (e.g, production department).

In Nigeria brewery plc ninth and Golden Guinea breweries Umuahia, the  predominant safety precautionary measure is the use of warning colour and sigh as hazardous points.  Such colour are mainly based on traffic signs and symbols for instance a point where highly inflammable substance and chemical and kept, the prohibiting sign like “NO SMOKING” are conspicuously written with red paint and displayed while other warning sign like warning for slippery floor and overhead cranes are predominantly yellow and triangular in colour.  To buttress this, wash (1982:36) stated that , the most feature a sigh, indicating requirement to take protective device, the colour must be dice  and circular in shape.  Although, according to the safety manager, they do not regard safety guides as precautionary steps because most of the machine operators are illiterates as a result seldom need or adhere to the instruction in the safety hand booklet.  But for this research, it is worthy to be to included as one of the observation of the researchers.

Again, safety handbooks should be made available to staff to familiarize themselves.

Other precautionary measure uses are the use of protective wears and hand gloves.  This method is mainly use to protect a worker from possible injury.  It is important to emphasis that the protective wears worn depend largely on the part being handled in the production process of firms.

–        Industrial Boots:  This is worn by workers in the production lime to protect their  feet from stepping on broken bottles, sharp objects or from falling object.

–        Face mask:  This is mostly worn by workers in the laboratory to protect their faces from accidental burst of chemicals.

–        Respiration:         This is also worn by workers in the laboratory to moderate the ammonia smell of chemicals .

–        Welding Goggles:           This is generally worn by welders to protect their eyes from spindling electrodes

–        Plastic helment:    This is worn by store keepers packers, loaders and off loaders to protect their heads from falling bottles.

–        Head phones:       This is worn by workers in the production department where noisily  automated machines are used.

–        industrial Alurm:  This is kept in the company to alert entire company in ease of any emergency

–        Industrial Belts:    This is used by staff of the maintenance department while repairing an overhead crane.

–        Fire extinguisher: This should be hung on all strategic places in the company in case of fire explosion.

In addition to all the above; it uses employees training to cause the employees.  To learn new ways of behaving and handling the automated machines which in the long run reduces the occurrence of accident production behavior to safe behaviour. It is pertinent at the junction fro point out that the effectiveness of training in accident prevention have not been encouraging as pointed out by Gilmer (1991:517) even though employees and given training on serves to make them aware safe from hazards of the job.

Finally, the firm embark of safety awards scheme to check and curtail the occurrence of accident.  This awards is organized by giving benefits, prizes and incentives to the people or group of people that have recorded the lowest frequency of accident during the year.

This type of measures in only very good for accident that occur out of ones carelessness but the inevitable ones still remain the advantages it has is that it makes employees to be careful in all their dealings in lieu of this, researchers have established in broad categories that which cause industrial accident.

In addition to all these Eke (1988:91) stated that regular visit to factory premises by inspectors to ensure compliance with the requirement of the factories act and subsidiary legislation will also serves as an accident prevention measure.


The center for management development Lagos has in a diagrammatic form shown the four link claim of accident process and identifying or studying accident causation.

–        Fault of person, usage acts, accident and

–        Injuries

Experts in accident prevention are of the opinion that the causes of accident can be grouped into two major categories, v:2 usage physical conditions and  unsafe personal act. By an Rue (1991:475) stated that accident can be caused by a combination of circumstance and events, usually resulting from unsafe work acts, an unsafe work environment or both.  This distinction goes ahead to prove that no matter the magnitude of an accident and  the place of occurrence, the cause(s)  must be farced either of the distinction that is the physical condition that concerns the work centers on the personal acts of human factors of the worker.


Statistical records and experience in the company have shown that certain physiological agent and condition render the employees more likely to be involved in an accident.

These factors or agent have fallen into the two such categories of accident causation   unsafe personal act result from failure to follows established safe working procedure, taking unnecessary risks, horseplay, failure to wear protective equipment using improper tools or equipment, fighting and taking unsafe personal acts cause as much as 80 percent of the organizational accidents.

Personal characteristics accidents in a worker that contributes to accident.

They consist of fatigue, haste, boredom, stress, provision and daydreaming.  In relating environment to personal factors, Iwundu (1985:5) stated that another point that should not be forgotten when considering the reasons why so many persons do not co-operate in insisting maximum safety is that it has been observed in many undertakings that frequency of accident is influenced by general atmosphere and environment in which the worker finds himself .  when workers are dissatisfied with wages, working conditions, the number of accident are on the increase while in the periods when industrial relation are good.

The opposite seem to be the case.

Some of these insecurity of employment is almost certain a factor for making our accident. Bayars and Rue (1991:475) said another causes of accident is that certain environment causes of accident are:

–        TEMPERATURE:         This was the out come of the work by laddel and Ojukwo in the hot eliminate  physiological laboratory at Oshodi and university of Lagos as was quoted in Iwundu (1985:3) the study proved that temperature and humidity affect accident rate.

–        ILLUMINATION:        However accidents caused by illumination have been categorized by international labour organization (`1984:35) into poor illumination and extra illumination as situation where accident occurs due to insufficient eight in a work place.

–       SLIPPERY FLOORS AND STAIR CASE:      Due to accumulation of oil, grease or fat also cause many accident and can be avoided if  effort are made to keep the structure of the factory clean international labour organization (1984:36) states that additional causes of accident include poor maintenance of machine removal of safety guards because they are perceived as hindrances to faster production difficult working condition.

–        NOISE:       People are less accurate in noisy condition some have a startle reaction while others are stimulating and arousing.

People are accident prone. Some employees due to their physical and mental make up are more susceptible to accidents. This condition may result from unborn traits, but it often develops as a result of an individual’s Enugu for instance when workers fear dismissal, they may well be in an emotionally unbalanced state and will take more accident prone.


The most crucial factors in accident analysis is the nature of tasks, especially as it is affected by technology and working conditions are those aspects of the physical environment when set accident.  Accident can and does happen in all types of Environment such as offices parking lots and factories unsafe condition in the work environment according to Byars and Rue (1991:4475) are unguarded or improperly guarded machine .

–        Detective equipment and tools

–        Improper dresses such as wearing clothes with loose and floppy sleeves when working on a machine that has rotating parts .

–        Sharp edges in the companies under study, the predominant.


—-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic


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Safety Management Programme in Manufacturing Firm

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