Performance Evaluation and Its Effects on Employees Efficiency in Nigeria

Performance Evaluation and Its Effects on Employees Efficiency in Nigeria (Mineral Water Limca Onitsha Anambra State)

Performance appraisal has been with us for long time. Being such a very important management concept by virtue of relationship with organization productivity many management writers or theorist have immensely paid attention commented on it on this note a lot of literatures have been made on performance appraisal.

Drucker (1955) has this to say about performance appraisal insistence on high goals and high performance requires that man’s ability to set goals and attain their systematical appraise based on high appraisal of a man and his performance in assigning work to him which automatically leads him to promotion hence the set objective.

Hodject (1979) in his research in organizational behavior narrated some of the purpose for which performance appraisal can be used includes:

Training and developing decisions, promotion, separation and transfer decision feedback to the employee regarding love the organization views his/her performance. Rewards decision including merit increases.



The need for staffing training and development cannot be over emphasized. This calls for employees taking more specific tasks, responsibilities and high moral thereby increasing productivity in order to achieve the organization goals.

Molokwu (1993) opined that efficiency of any organization depends on how well its workers and  taking to their jobs while the other ones require training to keep alert to the demands of their present jobs and to prepare for transfer the promotions. Training motivates employees to work harder. Employees who understand their jobs are likely to have morale, they see close relationship between their efforts performance.

According to Nwachukwu (1988) an employee who has undergone a good training programme has confident that he is capable of executing his job, unlike one who has not been trained and finds his job very difficult.

In the actual business world, the unfair objectives or purpose of comprehensive evaluation is simply to determine whether or not the instruction policy decision and directives issued on job performance down the hierarchy have actually succeeded and if so to what extent.

How effective training programme are on helping the employees to acquire desirable knowledge, skills, outlook orientation and attitude. The possible advantages or values and limitation of the training methods so employed.

Few instruments of evaluation of training programme is using are.

Interviews before and after course attendance observation of trainee at work discussion by training officers with trainees and their basses.

Follow-up test before and after training questionnaire used at the end of training extent of gaps and variable between standards and actual performance abstinence obtainable from the shop flow.

There are three (3) approaches for training evaluation common to all organization. They includes the following.

  1. Controlled experimental: this approach involves the use of group viz training group plus control group”, certain criteria measures or indices a reselected for both groups training while the later group is not.
  2. After the training exercise, criteria measures are applied separately to assess the actual performance of each group, subsequent compassion of finding will be made to establish a training given the resulted in improved performance.
  • Before and after evaluation, the after training evaluation method involves a single training group. But with performance criteria measure being obtain and carefully applied only after successful completion of training course for any evaluation pattern to be employed, these simple four (4) stages model may be applied.

STAGE (1): Reaction level, using the criteria measures or indices to evaluate the reaction of the trainees to the subject matter the way it is though participation of trainees, motivation and mood of learners.

STAGE (2): Immediate level using qualified criteria measures to assess by scoring whether learning has actually take place as regards trainees, attitude and knowledge and follow-up with a “fest” and perhaps “retention test” to ascertain perception and regards trainees, attitude and knowledge and follow up with.

STAGE (3): Intermediate level, these lowers the transfer of trainee from the learning situation to the actual work situation.

STAGE (4): Ultimate level, ultimate goal of firm is the increased effectiveness measured in financial terms, including improvement in quality, quality, reduction in time requiring wastage scraps etc.

In practice, using the indices a good and statistically reliable increase in the final score for the group as in whole caused by the training will means an evidence for charge and improvement intended to be achieved, it is worthy of note that a good evaluation exercise can only be best made after the proper launching of a desired staff development programme.

Every performance evaluation scheme must be consistent reliable and be a continuous creative management process be jointly carried out by trainees, trainers team of specialist plus the head of other departments, their structural fields of specialization notwithstanding.


Eyre (1982) commented that in whatever way jobs a regarded it is inevitable that serve workers will perform better than others and desire more pay order to reward the efficient workers in many organizations use system merit. A regular appraisal usually of job performance of each worker will be carried out objectively manager.

Systematic evaluation is everyday activity in every organization, to know this potentials and forthcomings.

Gulick (1950) opined that after a new employee is on for a while, it is doing performance appraisal is the system used by organization to regularly and systematically evaluate the staff performance to see how he/she is meeting the minimum standard or objective. It has been established job to achieve desired result through people.

According to Ubeku (1975) “performance appraisal is in exercise that require co-operative and team effort on the part of the manager therefore is to decide with his men the objectives of his department within frame of the entire organizations”.

Yuil (1974)on his own contribution pointed out that performance appraisal involves increasing it is the responsibility of the supervisor to assess the performance of these entrusted under this care”. That assessment can be used for improving placement transfer promotion or dismissing those performance are below satisfactory levels for supervisor see them too, improving their performance and for developing training programme.

Performance appraisal involves increasing productivity. As it is a difficult exercise where results cannot be quantified.

Ubeku (1975) contented that it is true that where result cannot be quantified. It is not always easy to measure productivity.

However, he further stressed that with careful analysis such result can be judge and rise or fall in productivity ascertained.



The benefits that accrue from appropriate setting of performance appraisal are numerous and cannot be over emphasized. Because it brings about provision of clear information about behaviours and capability of workers in an organization, thereby giving them the vacuum for amendment and improvement in their different disciplines by so doing according to succor to the life of the organization and to workers in general.

More so, it improve productivity in organization, because every worker needs from option based on that fact, he or she will be working hard to earn a better ranking or rating in the organization by so doing enhancing the growth of productivity in the organization. Performance appraisal tells the organization the capability or rather the quality of staff in stock and whether there is need for more adequate training nor not and the impact of the training receive by its workers.

Above all, it harmonizes the minds of the supervisor offices, and that is their subordinate while working and that of their subordinates while working since each other knows what to do, how to do it and who best to handle it.




In identifying and criticizing some of the problems boarding effecting performance appraisal Yonder and Standalar (1980) revealed in the book, personal management and industrial relations that source appraisers reflect the personal prejudices of the individual being rated.  He also contended that some appraisal though may be unbiased, but he looks more at the behavior of the rate than his contribution to their organizational effectiveness in support of the appraisal, William Glueck (1950) said that various studies have indicated that evaluators biases influence the evaluation better than others, this influence the rating they give to them.

Also Ubeku (1975) in his famous said that “the practice of sitting down once a year on December to write a report, he said is not objective that it amounts to trying with the like hood, the progress, the development and future of all the employees concerned and consequently the development of the organization.

Boyee (1997) opined that different managers have different standards of what is good and very good performance, by this he means that appraisers differ in many ways both character test attitude. Idioracy and it has great influence on them appraising the employees.



William (1950) in giving remedy to the problems suggested that their biases can be reduced through the use of such evaluation system as forced choice evaluation system as forced choice filed staff review, performance test and Management by Objectives (MBO).

Mortinko (1955) in his own contribution to the solution of the problems facing performance appraisal in his book. The practice of supervision and management “suggested forcer general guidelines that can help supervisors conduct an effective appraisal interview briefly they include:


Maintaining open mind

Feed back

These are aimed at ameliorating the problems that premade the appraisal. They also highlighted five (5) biggest rating errors that must be recognized and accepted by the appraisers. These errors include;

  1. Distribution error: these areas are result of undertaking. Underrating, over rating or simple failing to recognize individual employees who has shoe outstanding performance.

According to Motinko the best way to avoid this, is by the supervisor grading the entire groups ratings before appraising to make sure that rating are evenly distributed as possible.

  1. REGENCE ERRORS: This is the problem encountered when the employees are rated on the based of recent performance over the time period for the appraisal. The problem is more pronounced if the supervisor haves the appraisal exercises until then and of the evaluation period. This he fail to record important relevant positive or negative performance on an ongoing basis through the rating period.
  2. PRIMARY ERRORS: This is the opposite of regency errors. Here appraiser and rated. To correct this, there is also need to review the employee’s records both the previous and present ones and rate to the rated accordingly.
  3. JOB ERRORS: Occasionally the waters fall into the habit of rating the job instead of performance for example an appraiser might.
  4. HALD EFFECT/ERROR: This is error of based on a very far desirable traits and characteristics that are not necessarily rated to job performance. Because of this halo effect an employee may receive a rating than deserved because of favourable morton held mount him, maybe he dresses sharply and good looking etc to avoid this error the appraisers should direct their attention to what the employee can do and not to his countenance.



The existence of the need for any organization is to pilot with attain of the optimum achievement of this set goals leads to the necessity of effective performance.

The first thing that will come into one’s mind when working in any organization is that performance is the only available things that can prompt the organization to excel. This may be particularly correct many authors and eminent scholars have comes out with option about performance also been analysed, which are how promotion enhanced performance. These emphasizes on the evaluation of workers from the lower rank to higher rank promotion has social and economic advantages.

Sociality the new position is a symbol of higher states such as more important job little. Economically, it is the higher pay that accompanies it.

More so, the role and importance of promotion as a tool was also out of the sub-heading and it deals on the individual contribution towards work performance.

Training and performance was also some of the sub-heading, it provides great improvement for an organization.

Moreover, effect of public support/recognition on performance is some of the area touched. In any society or organization whether developed, developing or underdeveloped, public support/recognition an activities helps to effective performance.

Professional and effective performance respect for professionalism in all areas of human endeavours, no doubt enhances effective performance and job satisfaction. Institutions and modern equipment. This also maintains that the functions of modern equipment for service or performance of duty is so important, so government and the general public should help to provide enough equipment for the various organization, companies and the public in general which will enhance a great performance for these organization and societies as a whole. In an effective organization, reward are used well. Rewarding means recognizing employees, individually and as members of groups, for their performance and acknowledging their contributions to the agency’s mission. A basic principle of effective management is that all behavior is controlled by its consequences. Those consequence can and should be both formal and informal and both positive and negative. Finally good performance is recognize without waiting for nominations for formal awards to be soliated. Recognition is an on-going natural part of day to day experience. A lot of the actions that reward good performance like saying thank you don’t require a specific regulations provide a broad range of forms that more formal rewards can take, such as cash, time off and many non monetary item. The regulations also cover a variety of contributions that can be rewarded from suggestions to group accomplishments.


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