An Overview of Advertising

An Overview of Advertising

In the view of Udeanha (1995: 218) advertising is a marketing tool. Which is used to inform and educate a large audience of buyers or customers about an organization, its products or service and to induce them to patronize the organisation that is buy its product.  

He pointed out that advertising however, share some characteristics with such promotional tools as personal selling and publicity with which an organization use to reach its target audience. Sharing a common view Ebue (2000: 53) noted that advertising is an impersonal form of communication or presentation of goods, ides or services conducted through a paid media under open or identified sponsorship. Adding that it is powerful marketing communication tool used by companies to fulfill the promotional task.

According to Nwosu (1991: 70) advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.

In the view of (Ebue 2000: 54). They key terms in this definition induced, paid form – the advertiser purchase the media time or space for telling a story about the product or service. This is unlike publicity which is delivered without charge as part of news or entertainment for the audience.

Non-personal the advertising is not persona face to face presentations. It may compliment or supplement. The job of personal selling, but must press through the media idea, goods or services.

Ebue (2000: 55) advertising promotes both tangible and intangible goods. It is for both profit and non profit and service organisation banks, insurance, companies, dry cleaners, airlines, transport companies, social groups, government parastatals such as National Electric power Authority (NEPA) and political parties and their candidates.

Udeagha (1995: 216) noted that advertising is different from personal selling in that it is unlike the later, a mass communication tool that uses such media as the television, radio, newspapers and magazines to reach its audience which is usually a large one.

He pointed out that it shares with publicity the characteristics of being an instrument of mass communication, it differs from this in more than one aspect. It usually has identified sponsor.

In planning for advertising programme the following steps according Edeoga and Ani (2000: 266)  has to be taken

a)                 identifying the target audience

b)                setting the advertising objectives

c)                 deciding the advertising budgets

d)                choosing the advertising message.

Kotler (2000: 184) identifies two major categories of advertising corporate or institutional advertising and product advertising. He pointed out that the emphasis have is own product.

In the view of Udeagha (1995: 219) product advertising is aimed at informing and educating the consumer or any buyer about a company’s products. It also facilitate the marketing of goods and services.

Supporting the above view Ebue (2000) added that since advertising is used to gain access to a large audience that is sealtered over a wide area at the same time, its cost per or prospect is usually much lower than that of personal selling.

Also Read: The Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior


Ebue (2000: 55) noted that many firms allocate the largest share of the promotional budget to advertising, as an indication of its vital roles in the sales of a product. He identified that following as some of the reason for advertising.   

1)                To introduce a new product

2)                To sustain an established product

3)                To create floor traffic for retail store.

4)                To service sales lead

5)                To demarket a services

6)                 To promote public cause

(Ebue 2000: 56).

1)                To Introduce A New Product: Ikezuel J. (2001: 10) noted that advertising helps to introduce a new product by creating awareness building consumer interest more desirable image in the new product. advertising also enhance product improvement and modifications.

2)                To sustain an existing product in the marketing place: Udeagha (1995: 217) observed that advertising helps an established product to retain its position by constantly reminding actual and potential customers of the availability of the product and the company, hours they compare with competitive and firms in performing this functions, advertising will consistently – communicate the products mains benefits and also constantly monitor the market place for any need of modification in advertising message. Advertising will try to reduce customer dissonance and dominate dissatisfaction that may cause after purchase. This advertising reassume the consumers.

3)                Ebue (1995: 57) To build retail traffic. Ebue (2000: 56) observed that one of the roles of advertising is to increase the retail store demand by informing the public of sales and promotions effort for over stocks discontinued or damaged merchandise etc. He added that the success of many promotional device depends on consumers awareness of its existence. Therefore advertising is used to make some sort of special after that build retail traffic.

4)                Ebue (2000: 56) To secure lead: Advertising pre-sale a product or service by providing information concerning a product, its attribute and availability. Advertising create a fvarouable climate or induces a state of mental readiness for the sales persons call. The sale person may start of the sales presentation with a reference to the advertising. This advertising is a support function for the sales. It break the ice by creating familiarly with the product or company name.

5)                To demarket a product: Ebue (2000: 56) noted that when the demand for a product or service begins to exceed the level of which the marketer feel able or motivated to supply, a market approach called demarketing is introduced. This Statement of problem of overfull demand that is caused by either temporary shortages or chranic over popularity of the product or service may be corrected with advertising. That is aimed at tendering demands to fit the available supply.

6)                To promote public cause: Another major role of advertising identified by Ebue (2000: 54) is to promote public cause. He pointed out that many non profit charitable organisations and government department are using advertising to a great extent to promote public cause. He added that fundamentally, many companies have their own individual objective for advertising but nevertheless the general goal is to generate a sale immediately or at some time in the future.


Advertising is a major element of the marketing communication (promotion) mix, coming under the 4ps of marketing as popularized by Jerome McCarthy. Kinsey (1988: 119) advertising as any paid form of non personal presentation of products, service or ideas placed in one or more of the commercially available media by an identified sponsor. In Dunn et al (1990:9) advertising was defined as paid, non profit organisation and individuals who are in some way identified in the massage and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience. Also in Jefkins (1991: 4) the institute of practitioners in advertising says “advertising presents the most persuasive selling massage to the right prospect for the product or services at the lowest possible cost/ advertising consist of the purchase and use of space in newspaper, magazines or out door locations or the purchase and use of time or radio and television by an identified sponsor for the promotion of goods, service or ideas Frain, (1986: 278).

Regardless of its purpose and execution, successful advertising has two components. A m marketing foundation and persuasive communication. Advertising functions within a marketing frame work. Marketing consists of from primary elements products, price, distribution and promotion which are called the marketing mix Cosierk (1983: 2 – 3) has identifies the marketing mix as a unique brand of product, distribution, promotion and pricing strategies designed to produce mutually satisfying exchange with a target market. In essence, which advertising is primary concerned with communication it depends on sound management decision is the other three areas of marketing mix for its success.  (Ruessell et al 1988: 22) As such variation in advertising media (or modes) do not occur by chance. They represent fundamental marketing strategies to gain advantages over competitors and to achieve competitive success (Lamb: 1994: 23).

To Kotler (1988L 587) modern marketing calls for more than developing good product, pricing it attractively and making it accessible to target customers. Companies also communicate with present and potential customers increasingly firms are involving the use of advertising in comprising their marketing objectives. Advertising complement reinforce and co-ordinate with other areas of marketing mix.


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An Overview of Advertising

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