Motivation as a Means Of Increasing Workers Productivity

Motivation as a Means Of Increasing Workers Productivity ( A Case Study of Ibeto Group of Company Nnewi, Anambra State)

Many students have written on motivation and performance in  an organization. This maybe in recognition of fact that proper motivation leads to the substance of motivation growth and development. Productivity is the key fact of the development of a nation and the welfare of its people. Good performance and high productivity is the hail mark of development and economic prosperity while low performance and low propounded by Megrego.

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He says that management  can provide or withhold the means for satisfying man’s physical and safety and fringe benefits by withholding employment  etc according to Sombo A (1988) for employees to perform, management of such organization  must make them do so. He simply defines performance as ability time motivation P = (AxM)

He went further to state in this performance equation. It is  usually assumed that the ability of an employment is given, this assumption is justifiable since every entrants into most organization are screened through various tests before entry. Sombo continued by saying without all organization fail and unable to determine prior to entry by new entrants is the level of motivation. This is because among all the things motivation is situational and measurement management. Therefore we have singular task of motivating staff to perform since this is only variable in the performance equation that management can be influenced.

Sombo also noticed at motivation as the level of effort to exert on that task. This view motivation is obviously very embracing and affecting motivation. Therefore is spaced demanding task on management to determine the needs of its staff and the situational variable that determines a person’s behavior. It must also determine how motivation are of an individual needs.

2.2.THE ORIGIN OF MOTIVATION

The main task of every management or administration is to effectively achieve the objectives of the organization and this attained through proper motivation among all employees in the organization or system. The importance of motivation as an instrument in the hands of the management of nay organization has been a criteria issues since early 20th century. The persistent search by student of these factors that increases the employees performance and productivity led to the formulation of the motivation  theories were based on the belief that individual seek only pleasure and minimize displeasure.

In any organizational set up, the motivational process is concerned with how behavior get started, is energized, is sustained, is directed and what kind of subjective reaction is that people work to satisfy needs and apply drive or effort towards goals which provide the means of satisfying these needs.

Thus, the greater the need and the more relevant the goal and object to need fulfillment, the harder people work, so the individual is motivated by Henry L.S and Williams J. (1981) human motivation process by which behavior is mobilized and sustained in the interest of meeting individual need and achieving organization objectives perhaps the best known and most influential of all these theorists is that of Maslow’s whose theory of motivation is based on clinical observations and topics. It provides a five categories of needs

FIVE BASIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF NEEDS

  1. Physiological needs which includes need for food water, rest, sexual satisfaction etc.
  2. Safety needs comprising the need against threat, danger and deprivation.
  • Social needs such as need for friend, belongings, love and acceptance.
  1. Esteem needs which is concerned with self respect that is based on real capacity achievement and respect from others. It also include prestige and appreciation.
  2. Self actualization need which is self fulfillment, creativity, achieving ones highest potential.

Another human relations theorist, McGregor D. (1996) in his work, “the human said of enterprises” advanced tow beliefs about  human behavior that could be held from different managers divergent views of managers confirm to  their preceptors of the nature of humans beings.

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The two set of assumptions, he summarized in what he call theory X and Y.

The two set of assumptions was made by managers about their employees, before he summarized the  first set in what he calls theory X which  views man in the following principles;

  1. Average human being have an indirect dislikes of work and well avoid it if he can.
  2. Because of these characteristics of dislike of work, most people be coerced, controlled directed and threatened efforts towards the advancement of the organizational objectives.
  • The average human beings prefers to the directed wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.

Megregor said that managers who adopt this style of leadership authority in still peat into their employees by having them closely watched in order to obtain result.

These assumptions have its emphasis on control and extrinsic needs.

In his second set of assumptions called theory Y, he sees man in more favourable light.

The assumption of workers over this concept of management was that they posses potential that is generally untapped by most working environment.

Theory Y has following sets of assumption.

  1. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is an natural play or rest. Workers he interviewed opined that people were promoted mostly for being the favourites of their bosses.

According to Hebb O.O (1949) the chief problem that physiologist is concerned with when he speaks of motivation. Its is not arousal of activity but it patterning and directive.  Further in his own terms, he wrote the terms motivators as:-

  1. To the existence of an organization phase sequence
  2. To its direction or consent
  • To its persistence in a given direction or stability of contents.

This means that motivation is not a distinctive process but a reference in another context to the same process top which sight refers. It also means that the working normal adult always has some motivation.

Viscerogenic needs

These needs otherwise called biological or physiological needs correspond with the physiological needs in Maslow’s states. They are needs to satisfy hungers, thirst and sleep.

  1. Need for material such as feeding, drinking, breathing in oxygen for respiration.
  2. Need to remove undesirable or harmful substances like need for detection, urination, perspiration and removal of carbon dioxide.

Meaning of Motivation

Motivation was derived from latin word “movere” which means to move. It is process which involved power, energy, force or action. It is considered by psychologists as a hypothetical construct in that one cannot directly observe another person’s behavior and the comment in which a person is active. When one does or desire to do a thing, we say one is motivated. Especially when its comes to production and provision of services.

Motivation simply means influencing a worker to work harder towards achieving organizational goals. It is  general term applying to the entire class to drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar focus. To say that management motivates their subordinates is to say that do things which they hope will satisfy their drives in addition to act in desirable manner.

Types of motivation

There are two basic types of motivation namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation

This means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from within the individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its result are in accordance with his belief system or fulfils a desire and therefore importance is attached to it. Our deep noted desires have the highest motivational power. Below are some examples;

  1. Order: we all need to be organised
  2. Power: we all have the desire to be able to have influence
  3. Social status: we all have desire to feel important
  4. Social contact: we all need to have some social interaction.
  5. Honour: we all need to respect the rule and to be ethical
  6. Acceptance: we all need to feel that we as well as our decisions are accepted by the co-workers

Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words our desire to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even through the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual performing the task.

Extrinsic motivation is external in nature the most well known and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some other examples.

  1. Bonuses
  2. Benefits package
  3. Employee of the month award
  4. Organized activities.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

In discussing theories of view on motivation as held by different  schools of thought and eminent psychologist we known selected and will also use the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs. The theories explain the concepts

According to Okafor (2009) the hierarchy of needs theory one of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory one of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory, put forth by psychologists Abraham Maslow

Maslow saw human needs to the highest and he concluded that when one set of need is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to ne motivation.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s concept of existence of a hierarchy of needs has been tested by researcher who found little evidence to support it. They however found two level and all other needs grouped at the second level

It’s existence needs are not reasonable satisfied, the other need will not motivate. Also all the needs at the higher level. Another widely accepted theory of motivation is not expectancy theory developed by Victor Vroom. He explains motivation as a product of the probability that certain action will lead to these values. This relationship is expressed mathematically as force valence x expectancy for as particular outcome of which can be positive, negative or zero expectancy is the probability that a given level of often on the job will result in a given level of outcome say supervision job performance. Similarly, Fredrick Herzberg formulated the two factors theory postulated that the primary determinant of employees satisfaction are intrinsic factors to the work that employees does that is recognition, achievement responsibility and achievement in personal growth in a competence, those are called motivations however, Herzberg said dissatisfaction has been determined by separate factors which he called hygiene factors they includes working condition, company policies, salaries and wages thus motivation an employees on satisfaction.

Motivational Techniques

The following are the motivational techniques.

  1. Money

Money is a major motivator especially in our country Nigeria. This is because more than Fifty percent (50%) of the forces live below the poverty level. Whether in the form of wages, pieces of work, bonus or any other incentives, that may be given to people foe effective performance. Economic and most management experts have tend to place money high on the scale of motivation while behavioural scientists place it very low.

Firstly, money as a motivator, management has to make sure that salaries of workers are reasonable. In order words, management needs to ensure that people are compensated accordingly based on their input.

Secondary, if money is to be effective motivator, people in various positions even though at a similar level must be given salaries and bonuses that reflect their individual performance. It is almost sure that men can be motivated to a person income. The troubler with wages and salaries increase even bonus payment is that they are not large enough to motivate their receiver.

  1. Compensation

Compensation is any form of payment to employee in exchange for work they provides to their employer. Financial payment made at the time work is performance is called direct compensation. Overtime pay, commissions and bonuses.

  1. Public holidays leave allowances

It is a practice for employee to have some benefits in form of pay for time not worked. These benefits includes paid vacation days, public holidays, paid sick days, rest period and coffee break few organization provide employees at least a paid holiday per year.

  1. Promotion

For an organizations reward to lead to motivation and performance, the staff must perceive a lose relationship between their effort and reward they got for it. In other words, there should be a strong link between good performance and promotion. Unfortunately, this has not been the case in Ibeto group of Company.

  1. Employee benefits

Benefits first gained popularity in world was II when the impression of wages calling made it necessary for employers to find alternative means of attracting rewarding and retaining employees.

  1. Medical benefits/expenses

Individual Nigeria spend above one thousand naira (N1000.00) for medical expenses annually. Not only that medical cost are high, they are increasing rapidly. This can be attributed to a great extent to advances in medical technological services that are available today which in previous years could be purchased at any price.

There are long to show how medical care is important to Ibeto group of company staff however, free medical is a major motivational factor to increase in employees performance. That is increase on productivity. Ibeto group of company, health and safety in the industries areas are regarded as a deplore in the industries environment especially in production areas

The motivation aspect in that Ibeto group of Company the rule says (right tool for the job). Therefore a staff is not given a right tool to work has the right to reject any assignment given to him. This is because staff has been given the right and encouragement to embrace safety. Therefore the role of safety and health in organization is to maintain a satisfactory productive work force. An unhealthy work place can lead to dissatisfaction among workers resulting in poor job performance and reduce productivity. Finally, safety in Ibeto group of company is an important tool in effective material utilization for a greater productivity.

2.3. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.

Employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilization, productivity, commitment, motivation and growth. Many employees have fail in organization because their needs for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part of management function.

Training in Ibeto group of Company efforts i.e. the management aimed at helped the employee to acquire basic skill required for the efficient execution of the function for which he was hired.

Development deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy.

There are certain conditions that will serve as pointers for the need for training these symptoms manifest themselves in a variety of ways. The most common ones are;

  1. Lack of interest in ones job
  2. Negative attitude to work
  • Low productivity
  1. Tardiness
  2. Executive complaints
  3. High reject or low quality output
  • High incidence of accidents
  • Insubordination

The main objectives of training employee are to increase productivity from Ibeto group of Company Nnewi, points of view i.e. the management productivity is at the Apex of all training programmes.

A well trained employee is capable of producing more that an untrained employee of equal physical ability lower turn our rate is another main objective of training.

An employee who is incapable of producing is frustrated by failure and more likely to abandon his work that those who are capable of producing.

An untrained is like a dull school pupil. He hates school and like to absent himself and is likely to be school drop out, unlike other pupils who enjoy school because they are doing well. The same situation applies to an unproductive employee. He hates his work and abandons it at the smallest provocation from any source.

Higher moral is moral is another objective of training. A man who is trained has confidence in his ability to perform. He believes that he has control of his environment and is equipped to tolerate occasional disappointment, frustration and inconveniences. He learns to rationalize and to accept blame for his own failure instead of blaming the organization. A trained employee derives intrinsic satisfaction from his work which promotes his moral that have regular training programme which gives employees the feeling of being wanted and something to work up to.

Finally better coordination is another important objective of training. Training helps in the co-ordination of men and materials. During training programmes, employees are thought company expectations and objectives.

On the whole, training reduces cost as increase productivity. Produce employee turnover and promotes goal contingency. Few Ibeto group of company officers typically attends operational training academy before assigned to duty.

2.4. METHODS OF STUDYING THE PROBLEMS

  1. Motivation: this is the act that makes you carryout action
  2. Strategy: this skill you use in managing any attitude
  3. Competence: this is the ability to handle something.
  4. Civilization: this is to bring from a savage or ignorant condition to high one
  5. Extrinsic: this is the qualities, values of goods.

Difference between motivation and satisfaction

Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal while satisfied a want or goal while satisfied.

In other words, motivation implies a drive towards an outcome and satisfaction is the outcome and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced.

From managers point of view, a person might have job satisfaction but have a low level of motivation for the job, there is understanding that the probability of a highly motivated person with low job satisfaction will look for another position. Likewise those people who find their position rewarding but are being paid considerably less than they desire or think will probably search for other job.

2.5. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

This chapter presents the summary of findings. The discussion of the research findings, the implication of research. What has been done is that research questions with issues in common interest are discussed

Motivational theories

it was postulated by Victor T. Vroom, this theory says that people are motivated to achieve some goals or the extent that expect that certain behavior on the part will help them achieve the goals.

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