Marketing Technical Sales People, For Higher Productivity

Marketing Technical Sales People, For Higher Productivity

Nigerian attitude to work cannot be fully understood without reference to two variables as stated by Dr. Lawrence in his lecture on human resources management on air.

–              The influence of cultural values and perspective in relation to work

–              The effects of external environment on the organizational maintenance of motivation and morale.


Before the establishment of British rule in Nigeria, there was no system whereby one is independent for his livelihood on paid employment by another or where there are crafts and factories that depended on paid employees for their operation.  The introduction of  employer – employee relationship is not yet hundred years old in most part of Nigeria.

Before then, work was carried on individually in families or cooperating groups, farming was the most important occupation carried out in house hold unit comprising adult, wives and children.  Cooperation by neighboring farming, household in joint working for the preparation of planting and harvesting.  Occasionally weather farmers would request a whole kindred group or in-laws to help them in a farm work.

The farmers to whom help is given offered no other financial rewards except that he fed the workers and gave them wins a the close of work.


All human organization are open system dependent for their external environment inputs, these inputs are not only in the farm of human and material resources, they could be psychological inputs in the form of information and rumours which may have the effect of positively or negatively attending the motivation and morale level of workers thereby affecting their attitude and productivity.  It is not possible to anticipate the probable effect on an organization of a particular decision taken within the external environment of the organization.  That is why the external environment effect are regarded as imponderable that cannot be said or totally anticipated within an organization.

One of the most widely discussed and documented theories of motivation has  been postulated by Abraham Maslow (1994; p.320 – 396).  He hypothesized that human motives develop in sequence according to fire needs.

These follows in sequence and when one need is satisfied, it decreases in strength.  The higher need now dominates the other behaviour.

This leads to the statement that a satisfied need is not a motivator.  Physiological needs referring to food, water rest etc. security needs includes safety in one’s person and belonging, from hunger, threat, and deprivation.

Esteem or ego needs include the desire for respect, authority and status to direct ones affairs and influence others in social relationship.

Self-fulfillment relates to the desire for an individual to accomplish all what one has desired to be in life.  According to Maslow, to motivate people to put in their maximum effort, it is essential that these various needs which  have been identified must be satisfied.

An unmotivated employee is a jack ass in the hand of the company, he is used and goes about his task in swollen anger.  His needs are not being met and he is frustrated with time. They start to exhibit different kinds of defensive behaviour such as displacement, projection, ailments, sabotage or in extreme cases of neurosis.

Arya (1981) in the lecture delivered on the problems of motivating workers stated that it represents a major force in today’s industrial oriented society.  He further stated that he motivation of these workers is connected with the condition of his mind body and soul.  If all aspect of his being are in sound health and have absence of direction the battle is won.

A technical sales person is the some human being as a manager is.  It means that a congenial environment is prerequisite for motivating technical sales people for higher productivity.  Technical sales people are mainly people who have received elementary education but for many reasons, lack of fund have stopped them schooling and taking a job.  Thus, one factor that underlies their attitude to all problem of organization seem to be feeling that they are victims of circumstances and that for lack of financial support they would have being occupying the position to which higher education has entitled many of their luckier country men.

An interesting research on motivation was done by David (1992; p. 105 – 107).  He proposed that needs are learnt through culture.  There are three main needs:

  1. The needs for achievement (n Areh)
  2. the needs for affiliation (n Aff)
  3. the need for power (n pow)

These theories sum up to agree with Herberg’s theory I that

David needs for achievement with Herzberg’s fact motivators growth work itself responsibility and advancement.  It is need for power corresponds with Maslows belongings or social acceptance and agrees with Herzberg’s relationship with peers, superiors and unmediated supervisors.

The implication in David theory is that since needs are learnt organizations should determine our employee’s need and provide for it the need for power, he should be placed in a position where power could be exercised, the need for achievement, loss should be well designed and the expectancy of a position vary and clearly stated so that the employee could measure his achievement and derive satisfaction form it.

One of the best research works carried out in the field is the

research conducted by Patricia 1969 and her colleques often called the cornel studies.  The researcher concentrated their studies on job satisfaction to “The feeling though” to be associated with perceived differences between what is expected and what is experienced in relation to the alternative available in a given situation.

The job description index measures;

–              Work on the present job

–              Opportunity on the promotion

–              Supervision on the present job

–              People on present job

–              Present day

The researcher selected the five areas believed to be the major

concern of all who are employed in different enterprise.

The instrument has a basic advantage in that it is easy to one.  Highly placed officer could use it to determine the job satisfaction in his company.

Another, research was carried out by Olatunde (1999) indicates that in Nigeria Organization, employees cannot relate and attribute regards to effort put in with regard to this research the workers perceived that promotion depends more on fate and favouritism than any other factor, his significant study are “muddy water” has a limitation in that it is only a case study of an industry.  In spite of that, it is however a land mark in motivation studies in Nigeria environment.

According to Nwachukwu in his research carried out (1998) an organization experiences low productivity because of inadequate reward of the behaviour it desires that promotion hence is based on “God fatherism” and not on one’s merit.  Employee are motivated through sharing of decision making in an organization and his motivational techniques increase employees satisfaction commitment and confidence in the organization.

The participation in decision making motivates employees to achieve a common objectives as it is an essential ingredient for increase productivity and make employee develop interest in the problem and find challenge in searching for solution.

Many studies have shown that there is no positive correction between salary and productivity form Nwachukwu’s investigation, over 92% of the Nigerian employee are not satisfied with their salary and according to Herberg, money is not a motivator, promotion is a motivator and contributes to sustain behaviour but in Nigeria organization promotion is not based on “security and connection”.  This productivity is badly affected.  Nwachukwu pointed out that Nigerian employee must be encourage by improving extrimsices reward systems such as financial compensation, physical working condition and fringe benefits.

Because of the nature of sales job.  It is very vital for success that sales men be properly motivated.  It is very important that sales managers discover what his sales people want and what they wish to gain from the job.

Adirika (19963) believed that sales manager must recognize the differences between motivation and manipulation.  It treats him men as some kind of mechanical device who will automatically react to given stimuli as a puppet react to the pulling of its strings, heavily inevitably create vast problem for himself.

He noted further that there are likely motivational patterns of successful sales men which include:

–              Money

–              Security

–              Status

–              Power

–              Service

Udeagha (1999:60) see motivation as world derived from the

verb motive which means induces of provide with a motive.  He noted further that human being are usually driven by a particular needs at a particular time.  The importance of Maslow’s theory of motivation in marketing is attributed to the contribution it has made towards explaining this plutonium.

Anayanwu (1990:11) noted that human psyche or personality

is made up of three element or levels.  That is the ego the superego, the taste of a sales manager is to consider these element in individual as a group and arrange a balance motivational influences that could encourage them to believe the employment objectives, this is done by ensuring that individuals own goals in life which constitute with aims of the firm.

In his book Adirika, Ebue and Nnolim (1996: 195 – 196) in practice a great majority of firm pay their sales people a combination of commission and strength salary in other to deal with many of the drawback of each of them alone, which achieving the advantages of each.

The plan can offer the sales person the needed security of a steady income for performing the selling job and an extra reward for performing above average.

The commission payable for the combination plan is based on sales volume.

He further noted that motivation is a package of incentives which include financial and non-financial benefits designed to stimulate a sales person to high performance.

Onyeke (1999:190) is of the view that motivation is often described as insisting of two component first, the vagour or energy associated with the behaviour and second, the direction of the behaviour.  It is generally believed in marketing circule that a god salesman including undoubted.

This is no doubt lead to increased productivity Onyeke also pointed out that members of the modern society feel the y should be left alone to decide for themselves what to buy, when to buy how to buy etc. This may be okay, but with out the salesmen, it is not always possible to know how to use some product we buy.  The advertisement that come our ways sometimes simply prepare the ground for a warn reception to be given to salesmen.  Personal selling is particularly important in industrial marketing because many industrial product are complex.

Stanton (1981:398) agreed that in most situation it is personal selling that result in the actual sale because as we agreed advertisement, can attract attention and arouse desire but usually do not arouse buying action or complete the transfer of title.

Edoga and Ani (1999; p.257) defines personal selling as person to person form of promotional presentation of goods and services.  It is a direct form of presentation that may be directed face to face, over the telephone through video conferencing through fax and e-mail, or through interactive computer links between a buyer and a seller.

Personal sealing is a very effective tool at the later stages of the buying proves particularly in building up a buyer preference, conviction and action.

It is the job of a salesmen to make things happen and for them to make things happen they need to be motivated.

 —————-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————–—-

  This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic


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Marketing Technical Sales People, For Higher Productivity

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