The Marketing of Hotel Service

The Marketing of Hotel Service

The Marketing of Hotel Service – The subject matter of this research work  is  the “ marketing of hotel service in Warri metropolis” address the topic it is of importance to know what is meant by marketing service and hotel.

According to Kotler (1991 P.10), Marketing is defined as  a social and managerial  process by which individuals and groups obtained what they need and want through creating,  offering and  exchanging products of value with others.  According to William J. Stabtib (1981 P3)  Marketing is a transaction an exchange intended to satisfy human needs or wants.

The British institute  of marketing (1989 P1), marketing could also be viewed as the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirement profitably.

According to William J. Stanton (1981 P.441) , services are those separately identifiable, essentially  intangible activities that provide want satisfaction, and that are not necessary tied to the sale of product or another services.

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current revised by Honby. Hotel is “a building where meals and rooms are provided for travelers”,

Classification of hotels: Motorist hotel with rooms and cabins, a parking area.  However some of the important service offered by hotel are Accommodation facilities including:

Presidential suite

Executive chalets

Business suite

Studio rooms

Billard rooms

Luxury doubles

Restaurant, banqueting hall, bar, conference facilities etc

Recreation facilities


The increase changes in the marketing place have made it necessary for hotel to become more market oriented in offering of their services.  They aim at satisfying their customers needs as well as fulfilling their own organization goals.

An Arewa hotels in house magazine (1991P30) define Hotel marketing as the application of marketing concept  in the hotel industry so as to achieve a more effective rendering of services to the customer”.  They have been  many developments and changes in the hotel reflect trends in the  economic, political and business environment with other being a consequence of technology ad social changes.

It was recently that hotels became more concern with marketing of services.  Expansion as well as competition among hotel organization or operators has occurred with rapid increase in recent years.

Today, there are so many hotels with the result that there is competition among them to win patronage of “customers” who want their service.

Any organization wishing to survive in this present day competition and indeed in any depressed economy should have always their service/ products, packaging and the images of their organization to help the promotional activities of the company to succeed in satisfying their customers and these could only be achieved by those hotels that are prompt, efficient and effective.  These hotels have to restructure their principle and practices to adopt to changes that are talking place n the industry.

From a close observation  of hotels in Warri one would realize that a lot has to be done in order to improve the efficient, effective of hotels operations.

It is the aim of this research work to explore all the available avenues for the improvement of the effectiveness of hotels operations in Warri because when compared with other states or cities, their operations are still poor and inadequate.

Marketing concept is expressed in a focus on growth which there is continuing planned effort to enlarge of market.

However, the concept means that a business aim towards satisfying its customer.   While making a profit, the concept call for hotel management and employees to plan marketing strategies towards achieving customer satisfaction and organization goals.  In scheduling hotel activities whether for long range planning done  at top management level or operational duties done at the employee level the two goals of guest satisfaction and profit should be kept in mind at all times.

All company activities research, production, finance  and sales are devoted to finding out  what customers wand and then creating the product and services to satisfying these wants.  The theory holds that hotel activities are co- ordinate to meet the needs and wants of customers, profit will result.  The philosophy of marketing concept means that marketing should begin and end with customers.


The research will take cognizance of the following issues

  1. Lack of adequate trained and skillful person at supervisory level to organize and undertake effective on the job training for the operative at the basic technical level
  2. Lack of awareness of the needs and objectives of hotel customer/guest.
  3. The problem of high rate of labour turnover in hotel industry
  4. Delay in providing rooms, bars and restaurants services.
  5. Lack of adequate knowledge of hotel finance
  6. Non application of marketing concept by some hotel industries
  7. Failure to appreciate  that “customers” want satisfaction is the economic and social justification of company’s existence.


          This study is to portray the rich potentials that exist in hotel services process.  It is the desire of the researcher that scholars  on this topic would see further needs to use the information, data provided to enrich their works.

Also to find solution to these problems highlighted earlier and to re- state the importance of consumers satisfaction when applying marketing concept.


          The objective of this research study is specifically to find solutions that when applied to the statement of problem of hotel services in Warri metropolis of Delta State.

Training of hotel personnel to acquire skilled manpower  for achieving higher standard of services

Hotel should attach priority to the recruitment of hotel school graduates to enhance  professionalism and facilitate the access of the graduates to responsible posts.

The hotel should establish closer relations with hotel schools to facilitate interaction  and improve the quality of their product/ services.

Application of marketing concept will help to improve the poor quality and inadequacy of services rendered by identifying that customers want satisfaction is the economic and social justification of their hotel existence.

Improvement of their marketing effort and addition of new service or to be service oriented on the exist ones.

Providing computerized check in and offering express checkouts facilities to ease delayed.


          The scope of this study will be very wide if it has to be  carried out in all the hotels in  Warri metropolis.  Based on his, the study is focused on Royal Ark Hotel Limited.

This research study has been limited by some factors which are

Time:  Research work of this nature require some months for effective completion unfortunately, time constraint on part of the researcher has prevented him from making use of all the required time.

Finance:  There  is an insufficient funs for researcher to carryout his research work in all  the hotels in Warri or the entire country.


          The hypothesis to be tested in this course  of study are  as follows.

Ho None application of marketing concept is not the cause of customers dissatisfaction in hotels.

Hi None application of marketing concept is the cause of customers dissatisfaction in hotels.

Ho Dissatisfaction of customers does not result from insufficient and poor quality personnel/staff of hotels.

Hi Dissatisfaction  of customers result from insufficient and poor quality personnel/staff of hotels

Ho Insufficient recreational and entertainment facilities does not resulted to customers dissatisfaction in hotels.

Hi Insufficient  recreational and entertainment facilities resulted to customers dissatisfaction in hotels.


The following terms in this study should be taken to be the  following:


Marketing is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process.


The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English Revised by  Horuby) Hotel is a building where meals and rooms are provided for travellers.


The marketing concept  holds that the key to achieve organizational goals consist  in determining the needs and wants of target market and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively   and efficiently than competitors.


A product is something that is viewed as being capable of satisfying needs or wants.


Services is any act or performance offered by an individual or groups of an individual to another which is especially intangible and does not result in ownership of  anything earn and creates satisfaction, for the mutual benefit of the service provider and service consumers.


The  survival of the hotel industry, like most other industries is entirely dependent on its market that is the customer.     According to EFL Brech, in his book titled “principle and practice of management” the customer interest is the fundamental  factor in industrial and commercial enterprise.

Ugwu (2000)  carried out research on marketing of hotel services in Nigeria (A case study of Diamond Plaza Enugu).  He made use of sample of 48 customers.  The population was selected for this study were customers, businessmen , civil servant, men and women.  The researcher found out the following.

Customer choose the hotel because of high quality service, peoples recommendation, nearness, politeness of staff and security of the hotel.

The hotel has adequate facilities are good parking, sitting arrangement, delicious meal, playing ground and other minor facilities.

Time spent in buying a service is too long

Which the customers complained of this was attributed to lack of trained staff ad long service process.

Majority of the customers are not satisfied with  the quality of service rendered by this hotel.

Customers were not given enough promotional incentives, among those agreed that they received only discount.

The hotel social responsibility is that of employment opportunity.  The has a marketing department which does not the marketing function.

In (1997) Ezeh carried out research on marketing of service in a developing economy.

(A case study of DPMS (Nig Limited) Lagos.  He made use of sample of 80 customers. The population that was selected for this study were customers, staff and businessman.   The researcher engineers, who are business like, reliable  and  efficient.

As indicated by staff questionnaire item, that even though about 70% of the respondent claimed that it do not know that there are machines that were not maintained by OPMS.

It is interesting to note in questionnaire item 12 of the respondents that is 80.77% of them favoured the setting up of marketing section in the maintained department to take full responsibility for their service.

Kotler (1991 P.16) appears to have gotten at the core of he concept when he says that marketing concept as a business philosophy   “hold that the key to achieve organization goals consists in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively than competitors.  Marketing concept is “ a customers needs and wants orientation backed by ingrates marketing effort, aimed at generating customers satisfaction  as the key to satisfying organizational goal”.  This concept says that a firm should focus all its effort in  satisfying its  customers at a profit.

Instead of trying to  get customers buy what the firm has produced oriented firm would try to sell what the consumer want.

According to Stanton J.  (1981 P 10) marketing concept  philosophy  which state that “ customer, want  satisfaction  is the economic   and social justification of company existence“.    This means that marketing  is not just  a function of business like production, purchasing or finance.  Rather, it is a philosophy of business, a fundamental one, a guiding  principle, a way of thinking about business which demands to survive grow and make profit a business must be managed from the point of view of the customer and from the perspective of he market.

Chapman, in embracing the marketing concept  said, “ we start with the consumer and his needs continue with finding a product or service to satisfy these needs and arrange  for his product to be made and sold to the customer, so that the whole operation is to the mutual benefit of both consumers and   company”.

Olugbenga Ola Shodija (1987) his marketing is the business process by which product are matched with market and through which transfers of ownership  are attached so as to maximize  long term caring share  from this definition, one can readily identify the three main activities involved in marketing product/ services.

Investigation:  The search stage to identify the right product which  will satisfy a customer need.

Designing :  The process of developing the product its package and its profit plan.

Selling : The finishing touch, which includes advertising, promotion merchandising  and  the total sales force effort to sell the product to achieve its target.

These three elements of marketing are not  just  confined to a one time event which takes place at the introduction of  the hotel, but are continuing    event in a hotel in respect of whether  the hotel is new or old.  Any reputable manager will be continually searching for ways  and means to make his current service more acceptable to the guest and more profitable to the hotel

Babtunde (1987/88 session P. 20) stated that  marketing concept “is a way of life in which all resources of an  organization are mobilized to create  stimulate and satisfy the customer at a profit.  And where this concept prevails, the organization is futuristic, customer oriented, value oriented and profit oriented.

According to  Roger and Philip (1974) in their book titled “economic for the hotel catering”  they said, they said he aim of a market feasibility study is to answer  the question as to what accommodation and services, people travelling and living in an area want, and so come to conclusion about the opportunity that exist within a market in order to design the correct service to meet this need.

Marketing thus imposes on management, a first responsibility  to know and to understand the product or the services it is offering and the market to which it is offered.   The basic approach to the foundation of management in practice his been summed up in sample terms by urging on directors and mangers they key question, what is your business? If they keep this always in the for front of judgement and decision accepting the obligation to provide the satisfactory answer, they  are well on the road to continually effective management “a manager needs to be fully aware of he task to be performed whether,  it is highly structured and routine or demanding a high degree of creating and innovation”.  Put into the contemporary jargon, their management will be market oriented.


Hotel is a special built place where people of different personnel seek for shelter, food and pleasure.  It is an out growth of man’s use to travel.  The concept of hospitality   is extremely old, it is mentioned in writing dating back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome and biblical  terms for example, throughout Homer’s Odyssey and I had these as several evidences of it.  Such writing raised two possible explanation of why in those ancient time people felt required to be hospitable.  In some instates hey felt that hospitality of strangers was necessary to their religious fears ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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  This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic


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                                      The Marketing of Hotel Service

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