The Influence Of Television Advertising On Consumers Choice Of Beverage


The importance of this chapter is that it avails the researcher the opportunity to examine critically various relevant literatures books, articles and materials available for this study.  To have a better understanding of what literature review entails Okeke (2001, P.31) opine that:

Literature reviews is the critical study of the previous and related works or studies done in the researcher’s area of interest or concern.

Giving a voice on this Eze (1999), P.2) asserts that literature review forms the basis for the investigative process because it provides the researcher with the opportunity to look into the “pool of knowledge” available to him.

Literature review on this chapter is divided into five sections as it relates to the study namely:

  1. Television as a medium
  2. Advertising and its types
  3. Concepts of advertising media
  4. Consumers behaviours and brand loyalty.


Television as a medium of mass communication is an audio-visual medium in that it combines sounds and visuals (pictures) in conveying information to heterogeneous and scattered audience. In view of this Uwakwe (2010, P.88) opines that “television is audio visual an attribute which makes it entertaining and appealing to viewers. Television is dominant news medium and its audience are fragmented as many stations are located in different areas”.

Television medium uses the complementary nature of sound to explain the meaning of photographs that are seen by the viewers which has a remendous information impact on them. Owuamalam (2007, P.2) defines television as:

An electronic device which transmits audio-visual signals from the studio, through the transmitter and into the air as a medium.

He went further to say that television uses aesthetic elements to ensure qualitative presentation and it is the combination of all these aesthetic elements in their respective determined nature that blend to produce the synergy which is enjoyed from the television screens at home as television programmes. Furthermore, Onabajo (1999,P.32( states that: television is an electronic device that brings to us informational, educational and entertainment programmed. It is the greatest communication mechanism, ever designed operated by man.

Television medium is not just a mere transmission device rather than medium which brings it scattered audience  into a direct relationship with particular sets and values and it is also an intimate medium that brings the world into our home.

To buttress this, Frost (1939, P.22) asserts that “television is an invention that permits you to be entertained in your living room by people you wouldn’t have in your home”.

Also Read: The Effect Of Product Advertising On A Company’s Sales Volume


Advertisement is a communication in the media paid for by an identifiable sponsor and directs at a target audience with the aim of educating and imparting information about a product and services.

According to Okunna (2002, P.99).

Advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services ideas, personalities or organizational paid for by an identified sponsor.

The failure or success of any product or service depends on advertising strategy and choice of media. In views of this only through successful advertising that wins large audience or consumers.


Ozoh (1998,P.10) states that “advertising can be classified by looking at the type of audience to which advertising is directed”. In doing this, one will observe that the audience of advertising are varied and diversified, while some are out in the market looking for goods or services which they can ultimately consume or use, other are in search of those they can further process or use to make end products.

Furthermore he listed in summary  four ways by which we can classify advertising  and they are by target audience, by geographic area covered, by function or purpose, by geographic area covers, by function or purpose, by type of media used. These type of advertising will be explained according to the views of Ozoh (1998,P.11)

By target audience:- this basically entails classifying advertising according to the type of audiences for which advertisement are intended. Under this approach we have two types of advertisement, which includes: consumers and industries advertising.

Consumer advertising is targeted at the ultimate consumer or person who buy for the ultimate consumption of others. The products advertised are usually ready for ultimate consumption and use by individuals immediately after purchase and not require further processing. While industrial advertising comprises those products and goods that are used in the manufacturing of other goods consequently, industrial advertising refers to those advertisement which specifically addressed people who buy or influence the buying of industrial goods.

By Geographic Area Covered:- it entails the geographical territory which advertisement intends to reach or cover. Under this heading, the regional and local advertising.

International advertising is advertising that is directed at audience across so many countries. Example are those run by trans-national, such as coca-cola, UAC, Pepsi-Cola etc. the  critical fact is that the same advertisement is run in different countries of the world. The advertisement tends to be universal and expect to have universal approach while National advertising is advertising that is intended to cover entice country. Most of the advertisement we see every day on network television are example of national advertising campaigns.

Regional advertising is advertisement that is directed at a particular region who are interested in reaching a particular region. While local advertising is confined to a particular locality, may be just a town or a state.

By functional or purpose:- using this approach advertisement can be classified according to the purpose or function they designed to perform. Under this approach we have product and non-product commercial and non-commercial, direct and indirect action advertising.

Product advertising refers to those advertisement that are intended to sell a product or service on the other hand, non-product advertising refers to those advertisement designed to sell or promote ideas. Advertisement promoting such ides and practices as family planning, prevention of animal cruelty, abortion etc, typical example of non-product advertisement.

Commercial advertising and non-commercial advertising, while a commercial advertisement actively advertises a product or services in the expectation of making profit, non-commercial advertisement are usually founded on motives other that the making profit. It tends to promote essentially ideas or causes and usually it is sponsored by interest: group or charities.

Direct action advertisement refers to as advertisements that induce the taking of specific and immediate course of action by the prospects, such as in the case with mail-order advertising, where the reader is expected to complete a coupon and mail to the advertiser. While advertisement that simply try to cultivate an image for the product or organization, is usually an indirect advertisement.

By types of media:- sometimes it is easy and convenient to classify advertising by type of media in which advertisement are run. Ozoh (1998:47) further stated that:

Medium of communication which sages to the target audience. And here are two types of advertising media. Above the line media and below the line media, under above the line media, we have newspapers, magazine, television, radio and billboard while under below the line media we have pamphlets, posters, calendars, stickers etc.

Thee advertising media disseminates persuasive advertising message to the public which usually have some effects on the public.




Advertisement is an activity that is done solely to educate the customers about a product or service, or creating awareness of a new product in order to attract customers.

Advertising as the major tool of marketing products is very important, some of which are:

  1. Creating awareness for new goods and services keeping the existing goods and services popular.
  2. Communication features of goods and services.
  • To sell products ides or services.
  1. Ensuring competition among firms and manufacturers over consumes.
  2. Persuading consumers to patronize their goods and services.

It is the persuasive nature of advertising that leads to the influence of advertising on consumer choice of household beverages (Carbury) and influences are done through the various advertising media. However, Okoye and Ultura (2003, P.137) opines that: advertisement as any form of communication used to inform, persuade and remind people about organization or individuals goods and services, image, ideas community involvement or impact on society.

Relating these definitions to the research topic: “influence of television advertising on consumers choice of beverages”. Advertising is all about bringing to the notice of television viewers persuading them, informing and as well as remind them of the need to purchase a particular products at a stipulated time or season. It is mostly done in the television to expose the importance and benefits of a particular product to the audience to capture their interest.



Television advertising differs from programmes promotion because advertising has the goal of encouraging buyers rather than viewers. Advertisements are designed to give consumers information about products and services likely to be particular interest to those buying the product and so it is not programme promotion.

In today’s competitive world, there is need to advertise products so as to stimulate buyers interest and encourage them to buy more. Giving a voice on this, Morgan (2011) in this article from says” I believe that products need to be advertised to the target audience as close as possible to this moment when they are deciding what to buy.

Morgan considers the above necessarily to him because of a convergence and several phenomena in the television advertisement words of today. Such phenomenons are clutter power of last impression.

Clutter:- clutter ordinarily means to fill with too many things or a state of disorder. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th edition, clutter is :thing lying about in disorder especially unnecessary things” clutters is a big problem for buyers. It means that consumes today have enormous number of choices in products channel platform or mode of audience when a particular products adverts is on air matters. Having more choice makes it harder for people to make choices. How many people know the particular products, they want to buy anytime they are in need of household beverages especially carbury.

The power of last impression:- when you focus on targeting purchase, often it is the last impression that derives the purchase not the first one. If most consumers today do not know what specific product they want to buy when the last relevant advert seen going to have an inordinate amount of persuasive power.


Consumer’s behaviour and brand loyalty seeks to explain how consumers behave and respond to advertising messages and how it moves them to patronize brand of products (carbury)

Consumer’s behaviour refers to the attitude and demeanor of buyers while brand loyalty is the repeated patronage of a particular product.

Courtland and Williams (1994, P.96)asserts that “ measuring brand loyalty is very difficult because brand loyalty involves many aspect”. This seems to agree with Lester (1991, P.100) who suggest factors that could possibly affect brand loyalty which includes.

  1. Difference in brand quality
  2. Difference in price
  • Social standards
  1. Buying to please someone else
  2. Location


  1. Consumer attitudes.
  2. Perception.
  • Family pressure.
  1. Friendship with the sales person.

In relation to this Kotler (1990, P. 238) states four factors that can influence consumers buying behaviour and the factors include:

  1. Buyers characteristics, which includes cultural values instinct , behaviour, society, religion race, the social value family friends, colleagues, cycles, occupation. Psychological values-beliefs, motivation, perception, learning and attitude.
  2. Product characteristics, which includes style, quality price and back up services.
  • Sellers characteristics, which include buyers opinion of the manufacturers.
  1. Situation characteristics which include the time pressure felt by the buyers


Mc Quail (1987, P.53) defines theory as a “set of ideas of varying status and origin which may explain or predict some phenomenon”. Baskin et al (1997, P.53) asserts, that “theories are used to explain or predict the way things work or happen.

Also Infante et al (1990) in Nwosu (2003,P.34) defines theory as “tentative explanation of a phenomenon”.

Inline with the view, it can be said that this research work would lack credibility and scholarly acceptance if it is not anchored on some existing mass communication theories for the purpose of this work, individual difference theory was considered.

Individual difference theory

       One strong reason why advert message through the mass media cannot have the same effect on all members in the society that have access to television medium is because there are individual differences in personality.

Bittner |(1986, P.211) opines that “ the individual difference provides another useful way to look at the reaction of audience members to mass communication messages”.

He goes further to explain that even when people belong, to the same social category and have group norms and values in common each person still has characteristics which are unique.

According to Nwosu (2005, P.39) “ social categories are made up of individuals who have their differences these differences. These differences are inherent. This means that they could be physiological, genetic and course based on one’s family orientation. This gives them their individuality. The individual differences theory holds that individual react differently when exposed to some media messages. Thus, the effect the media has on one person, should be different from its effect on another, even if they belong to one social category”.

According to Barelson (1959) cited in Nwosu (2005, P.40) some kind of communication on some kinds of people under some kinds of conditions have some kinds of effects.

It means that, depending on who you are and the type of personality characteristics you have, a persuasive media message could fail either partially or totally to have effect which the mass communication/ advertiser perhaps intends to have on the media audience the same message could have the intended effect on another member of the audience with a different psychological make-up.

The individual differences theory focuses on psychological make-up of an individual, each member of the audience has a structure of interest needs, attitudes and values that play a part I shaping selections from television adverts on households beverages (Carbury).



In writing the literature review, the researcher broke chapter into sections which includes the following:

  1. Television medium parse
  2. Advertising and it types
  • Concept of advertising
  1. Advertising media
  2. Consumers behaviour and brand loyalty.

The purpose of breaking the chapter into sections is to get an overview o what surround the topic of study; “ influence of television advertising on consumers choice of beverage”.

In explaining theses terms, the researcher used textbooks from different authors relevant to the study journals of mass communication printed article from the internet, ideas gotten through experience and brain storming.

Thereafter one theory of mass communication which is, individual difference theory was used to backup the topic of study as it was considered suitable and relevant.

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