The Influence of Akwa Ibom State Broadcasting Co-Operation Radio Advertisement

The Influence of Akwa Ibom State Broadcasting Co-Operation (AKBC) Radio Advertisement,On Consumers Choice  of Champion Beer in Uyo Urban

Communication may be seen as the process of mutual staring of information, ideas, thought to ensures mutual understanding, reduction of uncertainties and appropriate actions, Umoh (1987:35). Maurice Mandel in this book/ Advertising 1978 asserted that of all business activities probably none is better known, more widely discussed and criticizing by the public like advertising.

Advertising has not only became an integral part of our society and economic systems, but has also grown over the years to assure tremendous proportion both as a business activity and as a social phenomenon. It has affected not only business but the whole society.

Malickson and Weison (1992:27) in confirming the assertion posit “Like it or not, advertising is all around. It is estimated that an average person is exposed to many hundreds of advertisement and commercial daily. Anyone working and living in any modern society, is under the influence of advertising everyday and for most of our lives we see and hear many advertisements.”

Advertising, as a form of communication aims at modifying peoples behaviour advertising is essentially a persuasive communication which is directed towards consumers it is also a sales message calling out to its audience to buy or acquire goods and services. The success of advertising depends on whether or not the information offered attracts the attention and helps change the consciousness of consumers.

The ubiquitous nature of advertising is such that even if one does not read newspapers “or watch television and work around the streets  with eyes closed, one can not possibly escape the omnipresent nature of advertising. This can be found in the area of public trade at local stores, uninvited handbills pushed through the letter box or cards displayed in strategic places in every facet of human dealings without prevarication, the world cannot be complete without advertising.

This chapter  present a review of some of the concept and opinions on the effect of advertising messages and consumer’s buying action.


2.2   Advertising: An Overview

        The practice of advertising is as old as man. The urge to advertise according to Otto Kleppner (1993:22) “seems to be part of human nature.

There are however certain definitions put forward by practitioners as to what advertising really is. Chandan et al (1990:3) captures the evolution of advertising thus: advertising in form or other has been with us for the past 5,000 years. Early excavations in Babylonia uncovered inscriptions which were interpreted by archaeologists as a form of advertising by a ointment dealer and shoe maker. Similar advertising are found in the ruins of periperii in Italy about 1000BC. Most of those signs were in symbolic form which were interpreted as advertisements for certain services.  Town criers also became a common form of advertising for event, news and even products about the 12th century. Drums were beaten, horns blown in order to attract crowds and announcements were given the necessary information.

The above authorities who started that the industrial revolution gave the biggest boost to advertising along with a geometrical growth in education and transportation facilities. The mechanization and information of industries changes the entire relationship between the producer and user of goods.  Standardization and special concepts were used to produce goods faster and much more than they could be absorbed in the immediate region. Advertising thus provided a vehicle too promote the sales of the goods in other areas. The tough competition in marketing and promoting products and the ever shrinking level of disposal income of consumers make advertising imperative in the enhancement of sales of goods and services (Ibid).


2.2.1        What Advertising is:

        As presently obtained, the concept of advertising can not be tied in absolute terms to a definite definition. It has always been and would for a long time to become a tropical issue within the academic, the practitioner and students of advertising. A lot in the area of advertising definition may be said to depend on the point of view of the definer or writer. It is therefore imperative at this juncture to examine some definitions as propounded by some authorities and institutions in advertising and communication area of the marketing process. It is a method of delivering on message from a sponsor, through a formal communication channel, to a desired audience (the word advertising comes from the Latin word advertere, meaning “to turn the mind torward”) Advertising has many roles: it sets out to make a person buy a product, to change mind, or even advocate less consumption (demarketing). It may be used to help a candidate raise money for charity, support a cause, or publicize an opinion. Most advertising however, is for the marketing of goods and services. Thomas Russel and Ronall Lane in Kleppers Advertising (1993:23).

Doghuge (1987:9) defines advertising as the communication between the owner of a product and the consumer of that product this definition points out two major persons involved viz: the availability of the manufactures and the consumer what is always at the receiving end especially in product and non product advertising. Both marketing and communicating perspective of advertising are highlighted here:

The American marketing Association (AMA) however, presents a concise definition of the concept outing its major characteristics. Thus, advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services to an identified sponsor.

The above definition has some major components such as:

Paid form: Publicity is not really paid for because it is presumed to provide information or entertainment. But advertisement on to other hands, is published or broadcast because the advertiser has purchased time or space to tell the story of a certain product or service.


Non-Personal Presentation: Personal selling take place when a personal face to face presentation is made. Advertising complements or substitutes for personal selling. It is done in non-personal manner through intermediaries (media).


Idea Goods and Services: Advertising is concerned with much more than the promotion of tangible goods. Although it is design to help sell goods and services.


An Identified Sponsor: This distinguishes advertising from propaganda attempts to present opinion anidea. Propaganda in order influence attitudes and  actions. Often the propagandist remains anonymous and the source of the idea unknown. Advertising, on the other hand discloses or identifies the source of the opinion and ideas it presents.

Kotler (1997:637) states that part of the money spent on advertising is really an investment that is built upon an intangible value called goodwill. Advertising is also identifiable with a sponsor or organisaiton which is not always the case with publicity or propaganda,

According to Akpan (1987:29) Advertising…helps bring people the necessary information upon which the business and personal decisions are based. It helps members of a commitment to crystalline their attitudes on matter of economy policy.

2.3   The Advertising Message              

        Advertising makes mass marketing possible by making prospective consumers aware of the availability and unique qualities of specific goods and services through the use of carefully selected advertising messages. Advertising is basically a communication function. As such, its effects or results can not be different from the broad outline of communication effects.

The root of advertising is understanding human behaviour while the primary function of an advertisement is to provide information that will elicit the appropriate response.

As Dunn et al (1990) in Ozoh (1988:99) aptly articulates, the essential task of determining the message of any advertising campaign involves two interrelated decisions. The determination of message strategy and the message tactics. Message strategy involves statement of what the advertisement is going to say. It is the idea about the product or services, encapsulated in the totality of the advertising message.

The message usually evolves from deliberate search for it such search would normally involved a painstaking analysis of several crucial factors. Baldwin (1989) points out that such would involve a close look at the product and the prospects. According to Adbato (1988:39). “Advertising could be explained as a practice of informing the public or a section of the public of the benefits of a particular product/service or activity in order to stimulate sales, generate positive awareness of some sort. He further stresses that “in advertising, if the words collect and the pictures inspire, you have got a customer” for advertising to be effective, the message (Stimulus) must first stimulate the audience that making the consumer to be attentive which will create awareness in the consumer and finally, creating a desire in which eventually loads him into action by buying the product. Advertising presents the must persuasive possible selling to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost.


2.4   The History of Radio Advertising

        Radio was the first broadcast medium that became universally popular. It was only a matter of time before advantage of the format. The very first radio Broadcast occurred in 1906, courtesy of Reginald Fessenden. Ships at sea heard him playing “ O Holy Night” on his violin and then reading averse from the Bible. Radio experiments continued, and radio stations were established all over the country. The first actual commercial was broadcast in 1992 from radio station WEAF. As radio became more popular, stations looked for ways to fill their airwaves with programming. In those early day’s the commercials were read live on the air, and entire shows could be sponsored by a single advertisement. Radio programming and advertising peaked during the 1930s and 1940s. Many radio of these shows were sponsored by advertisers pushing such products as cigarettes, tyres and even coal.

Radio Advertising is one of the earliest and most popular forms of advertising in today’s world of mass media. Although television has shifted much of the audience away from radio it is undisputable that radio is always there. Radio is broadcasted everywhere twenty four hours a day and always has the breaking news Walter Cronkite, a famous broadcast journalist, started his career in radio and concluded Radio has its own special strengths and contributions. While TV pulls the bigs audience, its still radio that is there virtually every place, all day all night. It’s radio that’s there when disaster strike. Radio is that medium of the single sense and frees the imagination (Schulberg, 1989: pg. 15).

Nearly 98 percent of people listen to radio primarily for news, talk, entertainment and sports unlike many other mass media radio is much more personal and friendly which attracts large audiences. Radio audiences have concluded that they listen to the radio, much like television, because they are either bored or lonely. (Schofeld, 2005). Although radio did take a severe hit when the television was introduced into average households they still managed to make a comeback. Radio reaches 77 percent of consumers and 80 percent of the younger audiences daily, which is remarkably comparing with the competition. Radio is now the third largest mass advertising media traving newspapers and of course television (Shulberg), 1989 p. 15).

Radio advertising became increasingly, difficult with the dawn of the television era which prompted the need for new ideas to reach the audience, instead of working against television which was virtually impossible, radio compares began working with them. In the early to mid 90s for was having trouble obtaining the younger audience that they wanted, so they looked to the radio. During this time the younger audience was one of the radio’s highest audience percentage thus, for began advertising their network over radio.

Mass radio happened in the 20s with advertiser spending about $10million by 1928. radio produced a number of changes in the advertising scene. It gave advertising a human voice with consequent emotional and dramatic appeal[ it pushed advertising directly into the home, and, perhaps most important, it provided a medium where advertisers and all agencies actually controlled program contents – advertisers chose programs and directed them according to their own taste. This relationship had not existed in the print media. Additionally, radio, had the effect of blurring the lines between program content and advertising messages the foreground and the background were purposely mixed and overlapped in such a way that it was hard for the listeners to figure out when they were being solicited.

Pros & Cons of Radio Advertising

        No one is saying the world of radio is perfect. Like all things, it has its advantages and disadvantages the radio is perfect for small business operations, but most won’t realize. There are some advantages of radio advertising:

  • Cheap – Radio advertising were cheaper to produced and can reach millions of people at the same time the relative cost effectiveness is as compared to television advertises which are so much more expensive than any other form of advertising.
  • Impact: The impact made by a radio advertisements is greater than the impact made by any other medium of advertising. This is because radio advertisements are played at time that can target a particular section of section of society or the masses and also because they are repeated every hour or half and hour, so the impact is maximum.
  • Entertaining – leaving television advertisement asides, radio advertisement are the most entertaining way of advertising. The print media can get dull and boring, where the radio allows for creativity in advertisements.
  • Cost effective: for those on a budget, radio advertising is cost effective. It is cheaper than television advertisement and more attractive than print. It is the most preferred medium of advertising for local small businesses.

Now that we have spoken about the pros of radio advertising, it is only fair to talk about the flip side or the coin. Radio advertising does have certain disadvantages, there are:


  • Short Life Span: Unless it is a very catchy jingle on the radio, most people forget about radio advertisements in a day. This is because most are jingles that last for about 30 seconds and are heard a few times a day then they go off the air. The life span of that advertisement is over and done with, and people will just as soon forget about the advertising and the product or service it was meant for.
  • Cost Fluctuation: The problem with radio advertising is that the cost can fluctuate depending on the time slot selected.


The Brief History of Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation (AKBC)

The Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation (AKBC) was established by edict No. of April, 1988. The Corporation provides both Radio and Television Services. Its temporary headquarters is located at No.3 Udo Udoma Avenue, Uyo, while the transmitting station is at Ntak Inyang.


Radio Service

        The Radio Service, christened, voice of promise, Radio Akwa Ibom FM stereo, was officially commissioned July 27, 1991 by the military Governor of the State, Idongesit Nkanga then a wing) commander). It transmit frequency modulation of 90.528MHz.

The signals of both the radio and television are widely received hand clear. The radio and television offer high quality programmes. They cater for the needs and interest of their wide and varied audiences. Indeed, the programmes of AKBC have enjoyed local, national and international acclaim, culminating in the winning of prizes during the 2004 and 2006 AFRICAST Programmes Competition.


2.5   Steps of Advertising

        Copy writing should be seen as a guide to facilitate the decision that make up the various stages of consumers behaviour. The steps in advertising are referred to as AIDA model.

The effective transmission of advertising message follows these four distinctive steps.

  • Attention
  • Interest
  • Desire
  • Action


Attention:  A number of physical devices should be used to attract attention on a drinks such as illustration, uniqueness the use of colour, the size of the advertisement. So that the attention generated does not distract the buyers from the rest of the copy.


Interest Once the buyer’s attention is attracted, his interest must be maintained. An advertising copy should contain consumer benefits and should identify the product with needs and desires of the consumers.


Desire: To create a desire, a copy must attempt to establish a brand preference the desire should develop for the product class.


Action: Though advertising is aimed at simply changing attitudes, its ultimate purpose is to produce actions. It may be immediate or delayed. The copy write must be precise by stating exactly what he wants the prospect to do. Is it to encourage immediate buying action, or is it to persuade him to buy when next the need for such items reoccurs?


2.6   Advertising Message Strategy

According to Ayara (1990:20) Advertising messages are generally designed to attract attention, arouse curiosity , sustain interest and increase purchase action. The peak moment of a product is when it offers new benefits. But information interpretation is consumers concern.


Twedt (1989:37) says that an advertising is

  • not an exercise of hetorics
  • Not an exercise in mesmerism in which the advertiser attempts to confuse the consumer with jaw breaking words which the consumer does not understand. The message must be simple but not stupid.


He must use words and images that are relevant and familiar to the consumers.

  • Not an avenue to make claims that can not be substantial.
  • Not an avenue to create scenes that are totally unbelievable.

Thus, Twedt (1989:38) concludes by stating that provide good product or service information to the consumer, communication in a subtle manner. It should be substantial”.

According to Bovee and Arens (1992:228) The message strategy involves developing a verbal and non-verbal presentation of message that would be simple, interesting, informative, entertaining, enjoyable or helpful.

Althoguh advertising role in product marketing is to increase demand, a copy is intended to perform a function beyond the mere development of familiarity with the brand name.

According to Politz (1995:322) “copy is intended to shape motives and desires to build believability and to provide a reason for selecting a particular brand over all others.


2.7.  Advertising Message Strategy and Consumer Behaviour

        When cultivating markets, the producer seeks consumers who have the ability to pay for the product, who process the power to make the buying decision and who are capable of deriving satisfaction from the product. This satisfaction may spring from its personal use or from the purchase for use by others.

Knowledge of how people derive satisfaction from a product is important when manufacturers and advertisers are deciding about the scope of their product or market in our complex economy Wright et al (1982:226).

Basically, manufacturers try to satisfy consumers wants and needs. But how can they be sure of what consumers want and how do they know what facts their products are most appealing? Producers and advertisers need to understand the basic force that shape human behaviour within the content of market place.

Consumer behaviour can be defined as that aspect of human behaviour that relates to planning, purchasing and using economic goods and services Runyon (1978:27). Two questions must be answered to grasp this concept; how do the buyers’ characteristics (cultural, social, personal, psychological) influence buyer’s behaviour? How does the consumer make purchasing decisions?

Information is a key fact in the consumer behaviour model copy writers need to provide adequate information for prospective consumers. Such information creates awareness about product qualities and also provide cues for decision making. The information in the advertisement help consumers to recognize their unsatisfied needs, identify alternative products and services that can satisfy their needs and finally help in the reduction of post-purchase dissonance.

Most advertisements that are purely informational need less information than those that are persuasive. To persuade we often need to employ logic, demonstration, comparison or similar techniques to provide adequate information.

Advertising content should help prospects in their use of information to guide their behaviour. Advertising messages are supposed to be clear and unambiguous such that there is no doubt about what prospects are expected to do.

The consumer decision process involves a series of sub-processes that are affected by a Varity of influences personal, interpersonal and non-personal. These factors affect consumers response to an advertisement.

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