The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management in Nigeria

The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management in Nigeria

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Training – Cropt, (1964) Maintained that in many training situation, the problem is merely one of imparting information of implanting new ideas into memory. The employer will usually be receptive but passive. If he is resistant, it may be because he has to substitute new idea for pre-conceptions or exiting of approaches. Often, it is one way communication, originator does not know whether the employee understands or respond favourably. Training is organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the efficient execution of the functions for which he was hired.

Thaye et al., (1967) training is natural part of the sequence of election and induction of employee, if this important stage does not receive sufficient attention from supervisors and managers, the possibility of using each individual’s full capabilities becomes a continuous programme of employee development, achieved by formal education and training schemes run by localized training which is mostly given by immediate supervisor.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Diference Between Training, Development And Education

It is salient at this point, to distinguish between training, education and development which tend to be confusing to be confusing to many as to their differences and applications. Although these three terms are often used interchangeable they actually carry district meaning in the words of theyer.

“Training means job related experiences (preparing the individual for a current job) education means individual-related learning experience (preparing individual for a future but fairly well defined job). Development means organizational- related learning experience (preparing individual for a new future jobs and performance pattern based on possible future direction for the organization”.

From this, we can see that a programme teaching a specific skill, such as baking would be training idea the employee uses the skill in a current job and education if he or she uses it in a future job. Development will include learning experiences designed to help the employee deal better with people ort with change in human relations, effective communication, team building or value clarification. A personal growth or career planning seminar would fit into this category.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)


More elaboration on development; development refer to any learning activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance (Cole, 1993).

Development deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform addition task and assume position of importance in the organization hierarchy. Development is concerned with preparing managerial employees so that they can move with the organization as it develops changes and grow. It is more frequently associated with education of managers in broad areas such as leadership, communication and motivation.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Management Training and Development

Management training is any attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a planned and deliberate learning process (manpower services commission, 1978).

Management or executive development is the company’s effort at rising through training management ability on order to improve the effectiveness of management actions. According to Obikoya, (1996) it is a known fact that the need for development of the individual manager must come from his own goals and capabilities. Therefore, it is essential that each person recognizes that area in which he needs improvements and changes in order to do his job better, now and in future.

The training and development of staff in the public sector is focused essentially on the officer cadre. In consequences, unlike in the private sector, there are no discernible systematic training programmes for clerk and other grades of worker (Ubeku, 1984). In his own view, Obikoya, stated that “the secretaries, artisans senior clerks, and other individuals occupying operation positions contribute heavily towards the attainment of organization’s objectives. Organizations rely upon them for their complementary roles. Therefore, training and development for operative’s employees must also be gives high priority by firms.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Need for Training and Development

Ubeku, commented on the need for training and development effort as follow:

“An employee should be helped to grow into more responsibilities by systematic training and development. It is only then of the job. Because he believes he can do it, his enthusiasm on the job increase. It is a person in that position who can think and originate idea as to how best to carry out the task of the job. People who are not retained tend to stick to what they were taught the first time they took over the job. They are frightened of doing the job in a different way, because something might go wrong and that risk they cannot take.

Also, in reasoning in the same direction, Akpan (1979) stated thus:

An untrained man in the modern world may be a menace to the society. He is a quack; he knows only the laws of things; he has no idea of why. Hence if there is any trouble anywhere breakdown in a machine or mistake in a leadger-all he can do is to fumble and punch up trouble anyhow, leading to a more serious breakdown or greater confusion. Really, there is no place for the untrained worker or even the intelligent amateur, in these days of specialized work.

Training Needs

According to Obikeze, Obi and Abonyi (2005) training need refers to any deficiency of skill knowledge on the part of the employee which be remedied through training.

A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge or skill to perform an assigned task satisfactorily. This implies that a school must set standards of performance for job/duties in every department division or production unit, so that workers can check for themselves how often and how well they are performing their task “(Obikoya,1996). As lack of training is dysfunction to organization performance, adequate care should be taken to recognize when training is needed (Onah, 2003). The following conditions are indication that employees in any organization require training.

1.            Lack of interest in one’s job

2.            Negative attitude  to work

3.            Low productivity

4.            Tardiness

5.            Excessive complaints

6.            High rejects or low quality

7.            High incidence of accidents

8.            Insubordination

A rational way of identify the area of training need is to analyze the entire organization (people, job, technology etc) this will identify the trouble sport where training may help and avoid the high cost and time that may be associated with poor diagnosis of the training needs. When organization starts experiencing some of these warning signs, it should consider training. For example, an employee will not complain to management that he require training, instead he would hide his frustration and use money for example a escape goat by demanding more wages, lack of fringe benefits act. (Nwandu, Ani and Agbo, 2000).

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Reasons for Staff Training and Development

According to Obikoya: (1996)

1.            Orient New Employees: New employees often require additional training to learn skills specific to other jobs. Improve Performance: Training is needed to make workers do their present jobs properly, to assume greater responsibilities in the future and to develop the entire organization.

2.            Prepare for New jobs: The use of skill, inventories, management what skills they have and where training may be useful to provide adequate back-up in managerial talents.

3.            Bring About Increase in Knowledge and Skill: Effective training can bring about increase in knowledge required on the job and eventually lead to higher productivity.

4.            Respond to Changing Environment: It can help employee to response rapidly to changing technology, increasing competition etc.

5.            Bring About Increase in Morale: Effective training could help increase employee morale because their recognized and valued by management.

6.            Provide investment in human capital: It serves as a corporate investment in human resources which emraces all levels in the organization structure.

7.            Helps to meet standard: Teaching of specific job skills would enable the employee’s to carry out the task to the desired standard.

8.            Project Company’s Good Image to the Outside World: This can be extremely important, not only from the point of view of influencing customers, but also attracting the right kind of employees to the organization.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Forms of Training Programmes in Nigeria

In training literature, two major forms of training employees in an organization have manifested. These are on the job and off the job training. Both forms have generated a lot of controversy on which should take precedence over the other. This is essence, means that is yet to be a consensus  among scholars on the various ways to meet the needs of the organization. Most experts however, agreed that terms themselves suggest what they mean.


This is the method used to acquire specific skill while the individual is on the job. On-the-job-training is required to improve the staff who had inadequate academic qualification for his job performance when he was employed specially in a situation of acute manpower shortage. This is also regarded as training within industry or training within organization policy.

The definition also suggests that on-the-job method is a specific form of job instruction. It imparts only these skill needed by the worker to perform a particular job competently. This is why it is mostly done in plant. However, it can be done outside the plant too. This specific form of training can both be formal and informal. Formal in the sense that, what is to be instructed is organized, manned or structured sequentially. These forms of training are:

•             Induction training and

•             In-service Training

Induction Training:

This is given to newly appointed staff immediately they are employed. This type of course is highly essential for newly recruited staff for the following reasons:

•             The new staff is projected from making costly mistake.

•             It makes him understand the general objectives, scope, programmes, problems, policy and structure of the organization.

•             Induction course are also very necessary for newly employed officers to enable them gain self-confidence and perform better to meet the desired expectation. The period may vary from few days to a week depending on the situation.

In-service Training:

This is the typed of training which an officer or staff undertake whiles he is still in the employment of an establishment institution. It is intended to update the officer’s activities at all levels.

According to William (1984) O’ Donell and Garavan (1997) and Anao (1993) in-serve training is necessary in such a dynamic field like modern education system in a developing country like Nigeria.  He went further to say that it should be regarded as supplementary to rather than substitute for the formal study programme. This is particularly, when the formal training given will be getting outdated. It is usually impossible to learn all essential techniques required during the pre-services or induction-training period. The programme could be an informal education training lasing two or more years.


This is the types of professional training given to individual before they are appointed. It is usually carried out on full-time basis, in schools, colleges and even universities lasing through a specific period.

There are (3) levels of this professional training for individuals in Nigeria.

•             Non-Degree Training

•             First-Degree and

•             Postgraduate Training

•             The No-Degree Training is undertaken in two (2) stages. Firstly, the two (2) years certificate course leading to ordinary diploma course leading to national Diploma. In most cases a specific period of one or two or more years of practical field experience is required between the OND and HND.

•             First degree course involved taking basic course in social, natural and educational. Speculation increase speedily in a specific area until graduation in the last year.

•             The postgraduate training that is undertaken at the postgraduate levels lead to higher digress such as masters of Science or Doctor of philosophy (ph.D). This involved more intensive training and research in special problem areas.

One of the major reasons advanced in favour of off-the job training is training is asked on the premise that trainee requires a certain amount of vocational or technical knowledge before entering the organization or office being assigned special tasks. The view here is that a sort of preliminary instruction is deemed necessary in order to prevent injury to the trainees, damage to equipment or waste of materials. It also prepares the work for the additional training he may get on the job.

Furthermore, this form of training is more appropriate for imparting complex skill. It produces broadly-based training worker who can apply their skills in a variety of work setting. Equally important is the fact that the method is good for a large number of trainees and is offered at all timed during the day or week and on part time and fulltime basic. All theses advantages cannot be obtained from on-the job form training.

Finally, it is a versatile worker who can perform many different tasks for the organization. It is also describable to combine the two forms because the disadvantage of one can be compensated by the other.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Method of Training

Training method are numerous and varied, some are useful to specific groups of management and employees. Other are helpful dealing with specific subject matter. most training methods however, have a variety of use in selecting training methods, the following factors must be taken into consideration cost time some of the methods include:

1.            Coaching

2.            Job rotation

3.            Special assignment

4.            Vestibule

5.            Lectures

6.            Case study

7.            Role playing

8.            Conferences

9.            Sensitivity training techniques

Shapiro, (1977) started that, coaching sis highly effective, being job related. This process is essentially the most direct and effective way for one person to influence the behaviour of another. To him, coaching represents continuing learning experience in which the individual is given opportunity to inform, is informed of the result he is expected to accomplish and is counsels on the result he actually achieved frequently, the individual being coached is exposed to a series of planned experience to accelerate his development. he may be given special assignment, perhaps as member of committee or a task force, he may fill in for the boss or be delegated parts of his responsibilities, his job may be enlarged, or be may be symmetrically rotated through a series of jobs.  Coaching as a training technique is effective at all levels of an organization. It occurs most often and most naturally in the superior/ subordinate relationship provides opportunity for close and continuing shaping of behaviour within work environment.

In the work of Flipo (1977) major objective of the position/rotation development is that of broading the background of the trainee in the business to him, job rotation involved where an employee is moved from one job, to another, usually for a month or two. By the time an individual stays in a job for sometimes before moving to another, he must have acquired some skill in that particular job.

He went further to summarize the advantages of job rotation to with:

1.            It provides a general background and thus an organizational point of view.

2.            It encourage inter-department co-operation.

3.            Fresh view points are periodically introduced to the various units.

4.            It promotes organizational flexibility through generating flexible human resource.

Special Assignment: This involves giving special assignment to employees in order to provide them with the type of training they will need in future in their career.

Vestibule Training Method: In order to give more attention to trainee needs and to employ instructors who are specialists, a vestibule school may be set you in an area of the production line. Equipment and materials are similar to those used in production, but the emphasis is on training rather than production. Programme may last a few days or several months depending on the complexity of the job to be learned. Vestibule training has the obvious advantage of minimizing transfer problem. In addition, it permit the instructors to arrange other ideal kinds of leaning conditions, such as immediate reinforcement, accurate feedback of knowledge of results, ample opportunity for practice and repetition. The most obvious disadvantage of vestibule is the high cost of providing duplicate equipment that is used solely for this purpose. Such a set-up may be more costly than on-the-job training.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Lectures: The lecture method is one of the most widely, training techniques.

Bradstreet (1978) concluded that “Lecture is the traditional method of transmitting information to others in formal classroom procedures” in industrial training, it is not being restricted to the formal classroom environment but is used whenever group of employees are given instruction or explanation of procedures.

Case study method is mostly used in business and law schools. Here the trainee is presented with a written case that describes a concrete organization problem. He then meets in small groups with other trainee and a group they discuss the adequacy of some or all the proposed solutions and try to identify the principle involved.

Role playing is the technique of creating a life situation, usually one involving conflict between people, and the having persons of development skill through role playing can take many forms depending upon the particular aspect of situation emphasized. In leadership or supervisory training, the emphasized is frequently placed upon developing insights into the attitude and feeling of other and reactions of other to the trainee behaviour.

The opportunity is frequently given, once insight has been achieved, to practice new kinds of behaviour and to begin to develop skills in problem situations, sometimes the emphasis is heavily practice (Bradstreet 1978).

McGehee et al (1980) has this to say on role playing, conference method and sensitivity training techniques. To him a successful role-m playing requires the careful development of role and situations. Each role-playing situation would provide enough latitude for personal expression, but also enough background for reasonable understanding of the situation and people.

A conference is a carefully planned meeting with a specific purpose or goal. As far as training is concerned, conferences can be sued in executive training, sales training in certain advanced fields public relations training etc. Conference techniques are limited in training to the development or modification of attitudes.

This method is most suitable for management development. It focuses upon the principle of active trainee participation to enhance learning.

Sensitivity training techniques on the other hands, is directed towards attitude and the development of interpersonal skill and self-awareness. Sensitivity training attempts to make trainee more willing and able to communicate their feeling and receive the feeling of others.

The general goal of this type of training is open up the organization through increased managerial sensitivity and trust, as well increase respect for the contributions of others whether peers, subordinates or superiors.

Evans, (1981), described training as the imparting of specific-employee which will be relevant to the employee present or immediate job.

In any organization, certain evidence may reveal the need for training employees. If production records indicate for example, that workers are not achieving production standards additional training may be required similarly an excessive number of rejects or waste of material may be caused by inadequate training. An increase in the number of accident is also an indication that employees need refresher training in the use of safety devices and in safety working procedure.

He went further to posit that, training is a productive investment. What makes it look unproductive sometime is improper administration. For a training programme to be productive, the most important thing to do is to identify the needs towards which the training should be directed, and then programmes are designed to carry out training process.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)


Evaluation process would wand to find out if the training and development programme has been effective. If the cost and effort are justified by the outcome if the training provided met the established needs and set objectives. While organization would differ in their approach to strategy for evaluation validation of training with job and skills analysis records and employee assessment/approval reports to find out if it is planned to met real training need. Some form of testing of trainee is necessary. Some organizations do pre-training and post –training test to find out the effectiveness of training.

Adamolekun (2002) opined the types of training evaluation, which seems to appear in acronyms (C.I.P.O) which stands for:

Context evaluation

Input evaluation

Process evaluation

Outcome evaluation

According to him, context evaluation involved obtaining and using information about the individual deficiencies, organizational deficiencies and so on. In practice, this mainly implies assessment of training needs as a basic for decision-making.

Input evaluation involves determining and using facts and opinions about available human training resources in order to choose between alternative training methods for example in company or external training, which external course has a greater reputation? Which cost least? These are the questions that are usually intended to be answered though input evaluation training.

Process evaluation is the type of training in which training itself is monitored as it is in progress. This involved continuous assessment of administrative arrangements and feedback from trainee. Outcome evaluation is the kind of evaluation that measures the consequence of training. Three levels of outcome evaluation may be distinguished between immediate, and long term outcome. Immediate outcomes involved changes in trainee knowledge, skills and attitudes which can be identified immediately after the completion of the training.

Intermediate outcomes are the changes in trainee actual work behaviour which results from training assessment involves motivating performance on the hob.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Long term outcome involve the changes in the functioning of part of all the organization which have resulted from changed in work behaviour originating in training. Assessment is usually in terms of output or financial measures.

He, went further to evaluate the effectiveness of training, one might proceed as follows.

Analyze the task carried out by the supervisor (or the person whose job is being evaluated) in order to determine what skills and knowledge required.

Measure the extent to which the existing supervisors possess the skills and knowledge indentified in the analysis mentioned in (a) above.

The measurement can take the form of performance appraisal of the individual superior (or any other employees). This approach could be termed analysis and measurement approach. Munford gave another method of evaluating-or the man himself will sometimes procedure anecdotal evidence of the value of a course since he may not only say that his performance changed but also indicate exactly what it was. As an example of this, he quoted the experience of a manager who had attended a course which included sessions on making decisions in which great emphasis was laid on the need to define the nature of the problem correctly.

Aburo (2008) maintained that there are several other methods or means of evaluating training. “Such methods as job appraisal, observation, and on-the-job inspection are all examples and are all very effective”.

He went further to state that you must select the one or more methods which best suit your own operation. This question of evaluation is not a simple one-Odiorne, (1995) writing on the problems association with trailing evaluation said.

“One of the procedural hitches that can occur in evaluating the effects of training effort is that of sorting out behaviour change from the results which that behaviour produced”.

For example, assuming that contain behaviours exhibited by the workers were found to unfavourable to the normal operations of the organization, a training programme may be designed at this point in time. It may turn out that the workers behaviour changes for the better. There is that tendency to attribute changes in worker behaviour to the training programme only. This will lead to a neglect of the contribution of other factors other than training (such as better motivation, efficient communication, good leadership etc) in influencing the behavioural changes in the employees.

The African journal of political and administrative studies (AJPAS) (2004) clearly stated that evaluation is concerned with the determination of whether changes in skills and knowledge have taken place as a result of training. Evaluation exists too check or minimize waste arising from training costs.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

Evaluation has to do with the measurement of performance. Where as performance in like with motivation. Attempt to measure motivation and moral raises problems. The approach to understanding organization that concentrate its focus on people within organization needs to be aware of what it is training and its evaluation Okpata (2004:) opined that training is an organization effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skill required for the efficient of the functions for which he was hired. It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. To him, evaluation is often difficult in situation where those goals are very broad. Also attitudinal changes arising from training and development programme are difficult to evaluate in clear terms. Be it as it may, evaluation is through component of training and development process. It is through its outcome that necessary changes and adjustments can be made in the training and development programmes to meet the changes and adjustments can be made in the training and development programmes to meet the changing needs of the organization. It is in expressing the same view that Ebeh (2005) emphasizing on the concept of evaluation that, it is the process of determining the effectiveness by nothing variations of form plains and the correction. This is made by measuring and analyzing progress and result against plans and objectives, and using objectives, standards and measuring strategies and instruments.

To, him, the management of many industries, businesses and government agencies authorized that expenditure of large sum of money every year for training activities, presumably to help their staff to become competent in their work. They would like to expect tangible benefit derived from this huge expenditure, if management accepts training as one of the company, evaluation of the programme should be made in terms of:

“The needs which are identified and which are expected to be met by the training programme.

The Cost Involve.     

It follows that evaluation is a means of minimizing human potentials through identification of human need, which should be satisfied for better performance. Evaluation is therefore goal oriented and positive in the sense of motivation to achieve better results. More

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical frame work will be anchored on synthesis of the two factors theories of motivation namely.

a.            The motivation maintenance theory

b.            The hygiene theory or ”eval factor theory”

This theory was prepared by Fredrick hertorbers in (1959). He was a behaviouralist and psychologist in this book the motivation to work he asked questions such as how can worker be motivated. According to him motivators are achievement recognition, responsibility and advancement and work it self. These are factors that will include an individual to put forth adequate effort in the accomplishment of organizational goals these are asked intrinsic factor motivators. The hygiene theory or equal factor or acetifies are relationship with supervisors, working conditions, relationship with peers, personal life money big offices of cars, this is called extrinsic factor. It is dual because if these are absent the job dissatisfaction. However their presence does not mean that there will be job satisfaction. This is because the day the extrinsic factor is accomplished motivate tension ceases.

(The Impact of Training and Development in a Public Sector Management In Nigeria)

According to Hertzberg what motivate employee more are mangers making the job more interesting or less routine, recognizing a job well down increasing the employees autonomy and making promotion depend on good performance to answer the above question, worker (employee can be motivated through adequate and proper training since training helps to improve worker performance.

Training has come to be regarded as a vital tool for management, capable of making important contributions to the goad of the organization meanwhile training was said to be improving on employee performance it helps the companies adapt to changes helps employee after their self actualization and esteem needs. This is more on seeing those benefits durable from training which are enough motivation to the organization. From the foregoing it is the understanding of the staff training and development in Imo Polytechnic Umuagwu Ohaji, Abakaliki study centre.

This is because manpower training and development are significant for growth, development and survival of an organization newly employed persons need training to get information pertaining to the organization just as order ones need it for promotions (Hertzbery 1969) for most times training and development are carried in such manner as to enable employees develop greater competence as to contribute to the attainment of organization goals.

Summary of the Literature Review

The literature reviewed above indicates that the effect of staffs as well as establishing if there is and difference between pre and post training job performance and the lid down standard as a result of training, there is significant relationship between the extent of workers training and the achievement of organization goals and there is significant relationship between the worker’s knowledge, still and attitude and job performance.

Reasoning in the same direction, Akpn (1979) as stated thus.

An untrained man in the modern world may be a menace to the society. He is a quack; he knows only the laws of thing; he has no ideal of why. Hence if there is any trouble anywhere breakdown in a machine or mistake in a ledger all he can do is to fumble and punch up trouble anyhow, leading to a more serious breakdown or greater confusion. Really, there is no place for the untrained worker or even the intelligent amateur in these days of specialized work.

More will be anchored in e summary of this work as it is pertained to the review of literature. Moreso, the researcher recommends that some lecturers in the centre should be more motivated as to render effective service of teaching to the students. Like those that gives joy to the heart of the students, when they enter the class, should be highly motivated financially and order materials of any kind.

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