The Impact of Television Advertisement of ‘Always’ on Consumers Choice of Sanitary Towel


The literature serves as the pivot of any research work. Marguez conducted an empirical study on the media of 600 advertisements published in different media in the united states of America between the year 1973-1976 to determine how advertisement is informative and persuasive.

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He classified the message content of these advertisements into five categories under the following

  1. High in information but low in persuasive.
  2. High in persuasion but low in information.
  3. Mainly persuasion.
  4. Basic persuasion.
  5. Basic information.

From this he was able to discover that about 43.3% of the advertisements were basically persuasive while about 22.8% of the advertisements were informative. According to Marqueze 22.4% of the advertisement were highly persuasive but with low advert information while 10.2% were highly informative with low persuasive only 1.2% of advert were classified to be intimidation.

He now concludes that most of the advertisement directed to the consumers are purely persuasive as opposed to informative advertisement.

A product may be well located yet will not be acceptable by customers. The reason maybe that customers are not aware of the product existence or that it can be obtained conveniently or that the customers have not become convinced that they have need for that product. Then marketers have to find means of communicating with potential customers by informing them about the product and  where to obtain them.

It is often said that marketer have superior product to sell will not find it difficult to convince customers to buy them. This statement is not time because a product can be superior yet if people don’t know about its existence it will not reach the potential buyers.

Stantion believes that advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal or usual openly sponsored message regarding a product or ideas.

Another published study on “The impact of Advertising on press freedom” by will’s winter junior of the school of journalism in organ ,says that advertising controls the press. but the implication of this statement is that mass media depends on the  advertisers, who force the editors to kill stories or articles which the advertisers find injunious to them. Advertisers use television to cover the areas they cannot cover during their promotion possibly to win people from such areas.

Television is the major source of product advertising Agency journal (1984)carried out a comparative research study on sixty one business organization in the united states of America. The study revealed that organizations reduced sales by 25.4%.

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Another published study on “the impact of advertising on press freedom” by will’s winter junior of the school of journalism in organ, says that advertising controls the press. But the implication of this statement is that mass media depends on the advertiser, who force the editors to kill stories or articles which the advertiser find injurious to them. Advertisers use television to cover the area they cannot cover during their promotion possibly to win people from such areas.

Television is the major source of product advertising agency journal (1984) carried out a comparative research study on sixty one business organization in the united state of America. The study revealed that organizations reduced sales by 25.4%.

In another published study by starch on the relationship between advert readerships and purchase behavior (1969) it was understood that advert readers were more than non-readers. This means that adverts readership improves the completion of the product brand .

These comparative studied by starch were further affirmed by Dr.Effion.J.Etuk of the department of management studies university of Calabar (UNICAL) when he opened.

‘ Failure to a advertise results to lose of consumers to competitors’

This statement is true because advertising has been described as an investment as well as the promotional centre of business and commerce.

In other of this work on ‘the impact of advertising on consumers, mike Eso, described advertising as very effective vehicle of disseminating information, educating and entertaining the consumers. The enumerated some psychological features which  advertising uses to influence the consumers as attention value:-This fact was revealed by study as the ability of any advert to attract consumers attention through usage of different colors, slogans and pictures.

Convincing value: This guarantees that certain facts and figures in the message are quite convincing and compelling to consumers.

Measuring value: This is said to be the ability to remember an advert easily by a consumer.

Desire creating value: this is said to be the ability to remember an advert to induce the consumers to patronize the product advertised.

In addition to this finding there is also information usefulness concept. To the advertiser this means that advertising is to be accepted by consumers. The advertiser must understand the various needs that consumers are trying to satisfy by communicating relevant and useful information to consumers. The information usefulness concept is the same as marketing concept which holds that for producers to be successful in the markets place they must design their products to meet consumer’s needs instead of reshaping consumer’s needs to fit existing products.

Information usefulness concept is necessary because it has been discovered that information is not useful in the sense that it conflicts with existing beliefs or planed action to fit existing beliefs.

John Kenneth Galbraith is his book “The affluent society” says of advertising and sales man ship, their central function is to create desires to bring into being wants that previously did not exist.

According to Marals, advertising is defined as the publication of facts or opinions of goods or services, to awaken the public’s interest and persuade them to purchase looking at these findings it is obvious for any business establishment to break even, they should have to advertise the kind of goods they produce to the public and this will be through to advertisement which is more demonstrative.

A number of companies in the country advertise their product or entities simply because they can afford it or because it was fashionable to do so. Only very few appreciated the long term impact of television advertising in building  and sustaining brand image.

Advertising in a depressed economy according to Mr. bassey Ndiokolo chairman and managing Director of UAC Nigeria pic in his paper on “marketing communication” has put the advertiser. In a dilemma. The observed that the advertiser is bombarded with cost in verses form all directions and is confronted with a restive consumer audience looking for affordable products/services given his dividing income.

The contest for the consumer’s attention advertiser has been intensified and the marketing mix has also from accordingly, he noted. The advertiser in order to resolve his dilemma has little choice than to tailor his offerings to what consumers can afford and do so more efficiently.

Advertising expenditures are sometimes said to be an excessive and unnecessary use of funds that could be employed more excessively persuasive, encouraging false values and prodding people to make unnecessary purchase.

People have refused to accept that advertising helps to educate the general public, contributes to an improved standard of living and facilities the exercise of free choice, some claim that television advertising does not hold or change individual opinions.

They believe it merely reflects them and promotes public as well as goods and services of churches, colleges etc. all use advertising to sell membership and gain support to develop favourable considerations.

Television advertising achieve the goal of informing people about a product services or idea and stimulate demand. It also motivate people, this can be ensured after the advertiser had understood the people from many sides which includes their needs, wants and norms.

Surveys of consumers attitudes towards advertising consistently reveal that most people like the information advertising provides.

The consumers believe that advertising provides information that can be used in evaluating products.

In the first national study of the consumers view of advertising, Baver and areger reported a major finding that.

“far and away, the most popular type of reason offered by liking advertising is information. In the same survey consumers were asked what they disliked about advertising, they did not answer that it is lack of useful information rather in lows Harms survey 80percent of the respondents mentioned information calue as the thing they liked most about advertising.

One of the most important factor in consumer advertising is the creation of brand loyalty it provide the manufacturers with a want of protecting the demand which he has established for his products from the attact of competitors.

This is the essential function of brand advertising to create and maintain a favourable image of the product in the mind of the consumers.

According to Howard Elvry, “the ultimate effectiveness of one’s advertising campaign can be judged only when the house wife, hesitating before a super market’ display of several competing brands, decides to buy your product because it is the one which has achieved the most lasting impression on her mind”

In an unpublished paper, by Mr. John Igbinedium,, the head of mass communication Department in Auchi poly (1989) he said that advertising being a very good process of product to its consumers should be done in all fairness. He urged the practitioners to be fruitful and avoid over exaggeration in advertising he said “Advertising should at  all times be guided by the rules of the profession as provided by the Association of Advertising practitioners in Nigeria (AAPN).

In 1984 at the annual seminar of AAPN then the minister of information group, captain Sampson emeka Omemah said “…..members should subject themselves to all ethical codes of advertising and product consumer interest. Since most of their advert message fall short of professional standard,”

In 1981 at he inauguration of the constitute PDAC in Lagos, the then federal ministry of health Mr. Daniel Ugwu also remarked that, “Almost every advert that appears in our media makes extravagant claims for certain product.

In reaction to this government Amadi Ikevechegh at the 4th general congress of the advertising practitioners in Nigeria (APPN)  in owerri called on all practicing advertisers to be alive to their social responsibility to the consumers”.

He went further thus:

They should realize that the promoter of a poor product does more harm to the consumers and society than the manufacturers and society than the manufacturer, of such product’


Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, which uses the media with an identifiable sponsor.

To take a look at marketing mix, it can be said to be tools used in the implementation of marketing plans. The marketing mix is also referred to as the 4ps” or independent variable namely: the product, the price, the place and promotion. These 4ps” product, price, place and promotion are elements the marketing mix.

It also can be said that the basic fundamental task of marketing is to combine the 4ps” into marketing program to ease the potential for exchange with consumers in the market place. Marketers in their pursuit to satisfy consumers use the four major independent variables.

When a manufacturer produce and package a product there is the need to price the product, set up a place which will serve

as a distribution networks to move the product and make it accessible to the final consumer.

However, wit out the fourth activity or fourth ‘p’, the marketing mix will not be completed. The fourth ‘p’ thus promotion is an advertising function which used to raise awareness of the value of product to the target audience to convince them of the ability of the product to satisfy there needs or want this makes advertising key in the marketing mix because without advertising the role of promotion value of product, thus raising awareness to the target audience will not be met.

In the discussion of the advertising and the marketing mix, the advertising can clearly be said to be the communication function of the marketing mix.


Clothes, car, sanitary towels…. we had never had so much choice as consumer. Yet we all have different tastes and needs. No single product is right for everyone.

Companies use advertising to tell us about the distinct products they offer in response to this diversity. When you see an advert foe ‘Always’ for instance it can

  1. Inform you about lower prices
  2. Tell you about differences in quality(e.g improve packaging that keeps the sanitary towel last longer, no stain).
  • Tell you about the option that best fits your individual tastes and values ( e.g The Always certified with blue pack)
  1. Inform you about the opinions that best suits your lifestyle (No stains no worry).

Advertising, in order words allows companies to provide a much broader range of options that would otherwise be the case by telling us about them advertising ensures that we don’t need to settle for second best, it helps us exercise our right and choose.


Advertising in one form or another has been around for millennia, and examples of adverting images and slogans can be found even in the classical world. From the 18th century onwards, advances in printing technology made mass advertising a reality. The late 19th and 29th centuries brought a reappraisal; with increasingly large sums of money being spent on advertising to larger and larger markets, thoughtful minds began considering issues such as advertising effectiveness and cost both the nascent discipline of marketing and advocates of scientific management began to consider advertising, its value and its meaning in doing so, they pioneered many of the techniques that are still used today. This eight-volume set focuses on the developments during the period 187-1920. It includes works on the theory and practice of advertising by pioneers in the field such as Paul chenngton, Herbert casson, Arch W. shaw and Walter Dill scolt, as well as lesser known but important figures including Horry Tipper, Thormas Rusell and Frank Parsons. Volume 7 and 8 contains a collection of essays and journal articles on the question whether advertising was a corrupting force, both economically and morally, with contributions by Samuel courtauld, Lewis Haney, Richardson Evas and G.O.H cole. Sampson’s classic. “history of advertising “ is included as a measure of where and how the field have developed prior to this modern period. As with ealier sets in this sense, the works reproduced here show how increasing understanding of consumer needs and responses informed advertising practices and led to the adoption of new methods and new media.


Advertising usually constitutes part of the marketing efforts of an organisation. Advertising is undertaken by organisations in order to attract the attention of people towards products and service.

Thus, the basic aim of advertising is to create awareness in the minds of people, about the availability of products and services and influence them to but the same.

The ultimate aim is to enhance the sales of the organization. Therefore, advertising complements and supplements the company’s selling efforts. The main purposes of advertising are as follows;

  1. Communication information is one of the most important functions of advertising is to convey or communicate the information to others. In modern day world, where science and technology contributes to new innovations and intentions, every now and then new goods and improvisation of existing goods and services are entering into the market. If their use or knowledge is restricted to a limited number of people, social advancements cannot take place.

Consumers are therefore, provided the information about new products and services which enter the market through advertising. Besides the demand for existing products and services has to be maintained as well as enhanced with the help   of advertising.

The ultimate purpose is to enhance sales either by creating or increasing demand for goods and services.

  1. Creates ground for personal selling: since the main purpose of advertising is to create and sustain the demand for a product or services and expand the market, the prospective buyers automatically become interested to buy such products and services . in this way, advertising supports the effort of the sales force of an organization and creates ground for the sales man to approach the prospective buy.
  2. Educates people: advertising serves another important purpose of educating people about products and services, as consumers are not aware of the use of several products and services, advertisement provide adequate knowledge to the people at large about the usage and utility of several products and services. Advertisement provides us knowledge of various aspect of products and services which really benefits and educate consumers in marketing wise purchase decision.
  3. Build good will: advertising serves the purpose of promoting goodwill for the organization. Many advertisements aimed at impressing consumers that the firm is patriotic, progressive, imaginative and very much concerned with quality. This creates goodwill in the mind of the general public about the firm. This goes a long way in creating a favourable impression about the organization on the prospective buyer.
  4. Counters competition: in the present day competitive market environment, a firm cannot escape the responsibility of spending on advertising to counter the competitors advertisement campaign, every firm has to undertake advertisement of its own. Therefore, competitive forces compel firms to spend on advertising.


In the review of related literature on this study, many authorities has been quoted as regarding advertising as the centre point of many products.

It could be recalled that the former American president “Frankline Rosevelt, while stressing the importance of advertising to man and society did say. “if I were starting life over gain, I am in line to think that I would go into advertising business Besides, not much has been done in this area of study but as the case maybe much has been written or advertised generally.

The intention is to find out the impact of Tv advertisement of ‘Always’ on consumers choice of sanitary towel from the review of available literature, one can see how persuasive advertisement, more especially television advertisement.

Now, the producers and advertisers create wants so also enhances the promotion of goods and services. will only provide papers as a reference for your research. The papers ordered and produced should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. It is the aim of to only provide guidance by which the paper should be pursued. We are neither encouraging any form of plagiarism nor are we advocating the use of the papers produced herein for cheating.

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