Impact Of Communication In The Management Of An Organization



In doing of this, nature, it is necessary that some critical examination be made of already existing literature so as to establish the necessary acquaintance with prevailing views and ideas in the area of study. In the process of this review, it was observed that most of the existing related works were based on directing and psychological conditions quite different forms that on which this study was based. Uses were made of unpublished thesis and past research works. The study employed theoretical literature explaining the impact of communication in management. Attempts were also made to incorporate their empirical literature explaining the use of communication in supervision. In the words of Flippo and Munsinger (1978:421) communication is the art of impacting a common idea or understanding to another period. The important of communication is a means by which people linked together in an organization to achieve a common purpose. Chester Bernaro (1948:82) who is regarded as one of the first and at least the best known of authors gave serious consideration to communication in large scale enterprise. He sees communication as a means by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a common purpose. An effective communication system argues Bernao (1948:181) is a pre-request for employee participation in decision that effect them it makes little serve to embark upon some types of participation programmed if communication channel are show and inefficient.



New man and Summer (1961:59) defined communication as an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotion by two or more persons. In other own contribution Knootz and O. Donnell defined communication as the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence but the receiver. These author found that the effectiveness with which communication techniques are used also influences span of management while supervisory ability to communicate plans and instructions clearing and concisely tends to increase the supervisors span. They argued that the measurement of performance against standard is not often practical or it is better said Massie and Douglas (1973:14) “ that all measurement is accurate only to a limited degree”. They opined that supervisor should ideally be on future basis, so that deviations may be detected in advance of their actual occurrence and avoided by appropriate remedies. What this suggestion is calling for is supervision of performance while it goes on, effective control should be aimed at preventing present, future deviations from plans. These writers suggested that forward looking and able manager could sometimes procedure probable deviations should be discled an early as possible. Geert Hofecede also pointed out the performance in some instruction, public agencies, schools hospitals etc. Is not subject to measurement standards and stable objectives. Trewatha and Newport (1976) stated that measurement of performance could range from single observation by an inspector or supervisor to rather complex reporting system. It is for the difficulties of measurement against standards that Thieraauf, Kiepcamp and Greeding (1977:642) prefer to regard this step in controlling as supervision rather than measurement of performance keeps in line with established standard or that the standard are being meet. Basically supervision involves the supervisor having to observe the activities of his or her subordinates, which is much of the work performed by lower level managers. According to Belasco (1981:113) the firsst factor in supervision that we consider is communication and is said to be a key factor in organization without it, there could be no organization. This can be because of its cardinal place in organizing and supervision.


Tayhor (1947:273) is “scientific management “ said that accurate and up to date information is the basic of all management function without which management is unable to forecast plans and control. He argued that communication, as a management activity is an extremely important skill to be mastered by the supervisor in order to provide information and human understanding necessary for group effort. The factors, which is however unique to formal organizational communication and its effectiveness is that it, operates inter-relating with the organization’s authority and the responsibility structure. Hampton (1968:394) followed this study by stating that “what communication does in an organization resembles what the blood stream does for an organism. Communication system supplies all the unit-department and individual in the organization with information if deprived of this necessary information, individuals and department within the organization will not function well and this will lead to inefficiency and infectiveness on the whole organization as a system and this affect management efficiency. Standard at (1977:16) stated in their book “that good management decisions is made when good information is transmitted to the decision makers. There is increasing evidence today that many of the problems associated with management efficiency are more closely related to ineffective communication. According to Hovel (19258:11) communication is a vital tool of business. It may not make a bed business good but it surely leads to the effectiveness of a promising businessman. Fumularo (yr:Pa) backed up this ertion when he said that “communication system is a modern care for any case of business anemia. But Scalam and Key (1979:199) submitted that employee work more efficiency and with greater satisfaction when they understand not only their job objective but also those of work group and total organization. There is a direct relationship between communication and management efficiency. In so far as communication is lacking the effectiveness of the organization would continue to decline. When communication is effective there is every tendency that it would encourage the performance of the worker and increase satisfaction. It is generally known that managers determine the organizational climate and influence the attitude of the members of the enterprise. It is the managers that steer the wheels of the organization to the extent that what they devise is binding on the workers. Samara added “for managers, communication is acclaimed to the major tool for accomplishing organizational gods with people and through people.


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