THE IMPACT OF ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES OF ABS TELEVISION ON THE SEXUAL HABITS OF YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF EKWULOBIA AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
The chapter of this research work deals excessively with the review of literature of opinions and review that related to this study. This study’s literature is drawn from some existing theories and empirical studies that are related to this topic of study, books in the field of mass communication, psychology, sociology and political science. Articles in journal (magazine and newspaper) and other related textbooks also contributed to the success of this study. The question whether the modern media of communication, the television, radio and print have any influence on the behavioural aspect of people has been of considerable debate. Some researchers on this question have done something but little was actually realized.
2.1 Theoretical background
What we know about the characteristic of mass audience and influence that mass communication has on their audience is the result of about five decades of research, a short span of time when we consider how long the print media has been with us.
That implies that although, much research has been done on the impact of the media, there is still more to learn on it. The magic bullet theory of mass communication was for the presumed all-powerful stimuli such that the media message can provoke a uniform reaction or respondents from audience. The magic bullet theory sometimes called the mechanistic stimulus respond or hypodermic needle suggested that the media could influence a very large group of people directly or uniformly like shooting or injecting them with appropriate message designed to trigger to desired response. The difficulty in setting a list of social and individual influence or impact of mass communication was indicated some years ago by Bernard Berenson (1963:10)
Some kind of communication on some kind of issues brought to Attention of some kinds of people under some kinds of conditions Have some kinds of influence
But William J.mcquire (1969:89) says the media is unreliable.
The measured impact of the mass media as regards persuasiveness seems quite slight. However, wapper (1960 :30) accepts the media role as influential media rather than that of direct cause in social learning and behavioral saying:
Whatever it is called, it is in essence a slight away from the tendency to regard mass communication as necessary and sufficient of audience effect towards a view of media influence in total situation.
A review in total campaign by menedenon(1970) suggested that the necessary of delineating target audience that are likely to be receptive to simple message, a well designed campaign using a variety of message in several media should be successful. Menedeson is not optimistic about the power of the media to influence social change but he argues that the potential for encouraging such change may exist if social scientist devise effective strategies for reading particular audience. He writes that.
“At the very least, communicators who intended to use the mass media produce information gain from attitude and behavioural monolithic mass”. Although, the media they decided to utilize, have the potentials of reaching huge population aggregates. The meaning of this is the most evidence on the failure of information campaigns actually tells more about shortcoming either in the contents or in the audience. Several students have indicated that information campaigns fail because they do not attract the attention of the audience. Wright will say that, “the star huge campaign to promote united nations failed because only those persons who has an initial interest in or opinion about united paid attention to it”. Perhaps the most comprehensive survey of influence of the media to date is that the sociologist, Joseph wapper, who examined hundreds research articles, books and other sources of objectives data concerning the influence of the media from this source he developed dive major generalization that seem to emerge from the accumulation of studies up to that time (1960)
The summary of which is as follows:
- Mass communication is usually not in itself necessary and sufficient cause of audience effect, it achieve influence among and through a set of mediating factors.
- On some occasions media may achieve a change if this is the case one or more conditions is likely to exist either that:
Mediating factors will be found to be in operative, leading to direct media effect of mediating factor that normally favour reinforcement will be found to favour change. There are some situations in which mass communication seems to produce influence but this is rare.
The way in which mass communication achieves influence either directly or as contributing factor agent, can depend upon many direct factors such as the sources of the message, the types of medium used the nature of the situation in which the communication is received, public opinion trends of the time and so on and so forth.
In view of these researches, it all indicate that under various conditions mass communication can lead to creative influences, reinforcement and minor change conversion and have no effect at all. Thus it can be seen that whatever attempts have been made to change attitude and behaviour through the mass communication only as contributing agent to change while there is still considerable disagreement among mass communication scholars and other social scientist about the efficiency of mass media in accomplishing the task assigned to them, or about how they function and their influence, there is a reasonable consensus about their potency as surveyor of information.
Numerous researches have also noted the importance of small group in social communication media may be effective in creating knowledge about new ideas.
“Interpersonal channels of communication may be more effective helping to form and change attitude towards such ideas, perhaps when objectives is persuasive we should largely depend on world of mouth channel rather than the mass media”.
There is evidence based on investigation made that individuals once they are exposed to information it changed their views differently, each in the light of his own prior attitudes.
Hyman and sheatskey(1970:10) is an attitude test on information campaign result concluded “people seek information which is congenial to prior attitudes”. A lot if studies done in different fields have proved that informed people do reach differently to people that informed people.
Information does not necessarily change attitude but it is wrong to think that information always influence attitude or that it affect all attitudes.
Actually, different medias are effective in different ways. Their mass media only create awareness while face to face communication brings about change. Both are complimentary, Having explored different mass media on how message received from them affect attitude and behaviour, for the purpose of this study we are narrowing it down to a particular mass medium, which is of course television. We can now examine the impact of television on ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmes in changing and shaping youth’s habit or behaviour towards sex.
In 1987, in a television programmes “The AIDS cover up” presented by Jack impe ministries in the united states, the president then, Ronald Reagan stated that the battle against AIDS has been like an emergency room operation. “we have thrown everything we have into it, we have declared AIDS public health enemy number one”
Impe (1987:11) observed that epitaph of the 20th century might be “they gained their rights except the right to live. if AIDS continuous to double every ten years, America would crumble between 1993 and 1997” many still think that AIDS is the America’s idea to discourage sex. This is an indication that the press still have a lot of work to do to convince the populace of the reality of the disease, previous investigations have shown that ignorance is the major cause of the spread, people need to be educated on the dynamism of HIV virus, its nature, mode of transmission, symptoms and signs and the preventive measures.
Nigeria AIDS Alliance (NAA) a non-governmental organization formed by a group of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLANHAS) tried to create more awareness on the disease by designing a strategic media enlightment programmes on HIV/AIDS. These programmes are normally shown case in television inform of advertisements, publicity, announcements and campaigns. This programmes is called AIDS-On-LINE.
Television programmes on ANTI-HIV/AIDS was reported by tell magazine of August 5th 2002. This programmes which was produced by Mohammed Fraouk executive director of NAA is about a live phone programmes on selected radio and television station where a forum is provided for interaction among diverse people on issue concerning HIV/AIDS. The programme is expected to start from July 9, 2002.
Also, Jingles and drama regularly presented on television equally help in creating awareness on AIDS. Most home movies also help in the campaign message. Regional statistics from nineteen countries shows that more and more are coming down with AIDS(Guardian 10th July 1994).
Owing to this, Nevirapine is used for PMTCT (Parent of mother-to-child-transmission) in Nigeria to prevent HIV infection of the child. However, current global opinion is that mother should also be treated in the long-term following delivery without a mother, many children will die or as orphans many will face insurmountable economic and social difficulties, let alone the emotional trauma of growing up without a mother. This question is not being addressed by Apin, which is considering the possibilities of providing PMTCT, which will include service for the mother (federal)ministry of health national(AIDS and STI control programmes:95).
Television medium contributes immensely in reporting about the public sector programmes for Antiretrovial Therapy(ART) which started from 25 tertiary hospital sites and in the private sector from an unknown number of civics. This drug subsidized the virus so that the people living with HIV/AIDS life span should prolong. (federal ministry of health national AIDS and STI control programmes, pg 8 2005).
- Summary of literature review
After the review of some literature relevant to our study, it showed that various studies have documented the effect of mass media on the society but from the 1940’s researches done concluded that the media were important. However, most of these researches were impotent and ineffective, more researchers were done in the seventies and eighties that made it clear that, there were some sociological and psychological factors, which intervened between the media television precisely, and their audience to achieve an effect.
It is assumed that television channel are only effective at creating knowledge of innovations, while interpersonal channels are more effective, informing and changing attitudes towards new ideas.
The literature revealed that there have been so many firms of HIV/AIDS issues about prevention and treatment, publicity, announcement on the latest development and ANTI-HIV/AIDS campaigns geared towards helping to curb the spread of this dreaded disease.