Family Planning in Nigeria
Family Planning in Nigeria – Literature review on the role of mass media coverage on family planning programmers for the purpose of study is classified into three categories family planning generally, the role of mass media are the programmes strategies used to persuade the couples and other social related issue which could be categorized with family planning. There is always the need to achieve a balance between the population and available resources to take care of the expanding population. There is basically nothing wrong with a large population. What is wrong and what generate the greatest concern in within the raised population creates unbalanced between population and the resources available to the state.
Apart from stretching available resources, rapid population growth tends to encourage migration from the rural to the urban centers such movements strain limited urban facilities and infrastructures. There is also the problem of over coding severs environment pollution and degradation. This condition give birth to anti-social behavour and a de-variation in the standard of living and quality of life the people, consequently, a nation needs to plain it’s population to endure that it does not grow beyond it’s measure.
Nigerian population of 88.5 million (1991) and it’s rapid growth rate of about 32 obviously has divers implication on food, health, education, environment and economics growth Nigerian will have to double existing infrastructure to maintain the present quality of life in the next 25 years. Given the strain on limited resource available to government, the possibility of doubling these facilities seems far-fetched. On this note, people have to realize the importance of family planning, key policy makers, and traditional, religious leaders, in the country have significant statements on Nigerian population problem. They all agree on the need to balance population growth with national development and that the populace should through the mass media be adequately informed
Generally Olusegun Obasanjo Nigerian Head of States in his statement fat that there cannot be improvement in the quality of life if we continue to increase and multiply indiscriminately without adequate provision for education, food, the health, case services things for our children, good communication and transportations for the nation. In his contribution, Alhaji Oltiman Belyaririn, Emir of Dars, says that family planning is gaining ground due to economic reason and that almighty allah does not want us to have children we cannot feed and advised men to allow their wives to use family planning and visit the clinics.
Dr. Lotuf Adegbite, secretary general supreme council for Islamic affaires cleared the nation that family planning is against religion. When he pointed out that Islam sanctions. Child spacing between two and half years to three years through breast feeding and other methods, saying that everybody should take it serious otherwise the world will became unbearable to live in.
“ We: must control our population growth”.
This was said by Alaieluwa Oba Okenade Syevade the Okube ie, the Oba of Ife. He further stressed that days are gone when large families are being encouraged in order to provide real available labour on the farms or to measure individual wealth. We in Nigerian, experiencing the discipline of the structure adjustment programme must now count the cost of uncontrolled number of children in the ever increasing expense of education health care other amenities of modern life. We therefore need little encouragement to begin serious to limit the number of our children.
The importance of family planning in national development cannot be over stressed as many developing nations around the world have been able to full directly with their planning in all faces of development in the sense that population growth must be taken into accounts for economics educational, agricultural development of a nation. Deret Lawilyn Jones quoting D meadous recited a riddle on the limit to growth. “A man owned a lily pond on which a water lily was growing, the lily plant doubled in size each day if the lily were allowed to flow unchecked, it would completely cover the pond thirty days, choking off all other forms of life. He also enjoyed looking at the lilies, so he was in a dilemma, how long he could deep the lilies without getting it back so that he could look at the white flowers of his lily and still have his trout to eat.
The question of the riddle is this; on what day will the lily cover half the pond. The answer is no the 29th day “the owner has only one day to save hip pond.”
Deret Lawilyn Jones (yr: pg) pp. 30 is saying that the rate of growth of human population has speeded up in a way that the time interval for population doubling the diminished progressively. (This experimental growth) the population is increasing at a rate proportional to it’s side just like the water lily in French riddle like the owner of the pond, mankind has reach the peritimate day.
The limit to growth have analyzed recently by a term scientists led by professor Dennis Frong the Massachusetts institute of technology. He points out that tends are interconnected in many ways and their experimental increased threatens our future population cannot grow without food. Food production is increased by growth capitals, which provides the need input of water, fertilizer and new stains of seeds which require the use of the finite mineral resources of the world. Their resources are converted into consumers’ goods, which more and more people are induced to buy. The profit provides capital for food production. The discarded resources produce increasing pollution, which interferes with the quality of life and health, with growth of population. All have infinite growth limit. The current rate of population growth has resulted from the reduction of death rate of infant, children and adolescences, and the long life span of adult with out an equivalent reduction in birth rate.
In the past years, contraceptive technology has made considerable advance, which have lead to the development of the two most reliable contraceptive methods available. The hormonal contraceptive (the pill and the infection) and the intrauterine contraceptive (IUD) this two method have a high wider of reliability and have been widely accepted by woman. They give to choose when to became pregnant.
The policy, which initially provided by woman, was later modified to four children to a family as a result of adverse public and media criticism. As a part of government efforts to give effectiveness to family planning programmers, it has planned to establish one hundred family planning centers in military barracks across the country. Wilbur Schran quiting Dr. M Brwster Smith chairman of the psychology department university of Chicago in 1984 said when population control is now regarded as one of the essential elements of economic development in many countries.
Consequently, it is one the area of development to which modern knowledge of communication is being called to contribute and one of the great the process and rules of communication.
RULES OF THE MEDIA AND PROGRAMME STRATEGIES
Government of the world countries having realized the need for supportive efforts on family planning have begun an effective un-realization of mass media for dissemination information of family planning. Prior to that period, there had been considerable resistance about using the mass media to promote family planning to reduce the population.
In Nigerian there is no doubt that family planning programmes are going on through the mass media. This assertion is strongly corroborate by such programmes be carried on radio and television in Enugu state. The radio and family planning programmes being run in the state are Nigerian television authority (NTA) Enugu, federal radio co-operation Nigerian (FRCN) Enugu.
These programmes include, “Ezi na uno” and Igbo language soap opera (a drama programme which portrays the inherence problems of couple who have more children than they can adequate cater for and at the same time shows the happiness of a small but contented family who gave their children good education, health care and other good parental care because they could afford it. (FRNCN Enugu) family sports (a semi drama programme which shows that actives of a well planned family were due to ill health children from couple who, did not plan their families and cropped out before the race was completed. The race and won (Radio planning personnel enlighten listeners on the various method of birth control) NTA Enugu channels 8 in a lighter mood (a discussion programme which uses family planning officials and personnel to discuss family issue once a week.
Apart from the stated programmes there is need for mass media programme that will achieve increase acceptance of family planning in Nigerian.
In this respect the Nigerian fertility NAS survey plans to develop a standardize set of mass media programmes script to promote family planning on radio and television. These scripts are to be used in the production of drama series by specially identified media house. The mass media, played a lot of role in family planning by bringing out the benefit of family planning on pre-requisite to its usage. When troupe are convinced that they have more to gain then to lose by using contraceptives, they are none likely embrace family planning.
Family planning has important social economic and health benefits awareness of such benefits awareness of such benefits and significantly enhance contraceptive we use. Although awareness of the term “family planning” is generally high in the country relatively few people avoid of the different method of contraceptives.
Awareness is an indispensable stop to behaviours change. If people are to be expected to adapt to contraceptives they have to be recognized the different option available to them.
Empirical evidence shows that not all woman who known the family planning method know where they can obtain it. In the DHS, only one third of the currently married woman knows a place where they can obtain some method of family planning. It is therefore necessary that while providing information on the types of family planning methods, we should also inform the audience on the types of establishment, which provide family planning services.
Myths, and rumors are major factors militating against, the adoption and continued use of modern family planning method. Most serious and most damaging the fear that contraceptive could impair the health of both the woman and the child.
Actually this misconception has been documented in 1992 as being the most predominant reason for use of contraceptive. In all this, the scriptwriters should endeavor to adequately address all this myths and rumors, a detailed description of myths and rumors and their clarification. Ityauyur in 1991 in his book “a manual on population and mass media strategies” stressed that for contraceptive use became wide spread and fertility preference should tend significantly towards smaller family six indeed, high level of fertility and low levels of contraceptive as are not likely to change until the ideal of reproduction choice is more widely accepted. At presence in Nigerian the small family norms is yet to be institutionalized. The desire for child bearing is strong and Nigerians generally still see many children a thing of pride not withstanding the economics hardship on the other hand Adeniyi et in 1992 believes that as people became more educated and rise in the socioeconomic rather, they start to record smaller family size as fashionable.
While reviewing existing literature, he found that the attitude for both the rich and poor class favour barge family as a display of wealth.
This situation call for special efforts aimed at education not only woman but also more especially the men, on the ills of large family size and emphasis made on the advantage of small family. It is essential for men to participate more actively on the family planning other by adopting appropriate male method or at least encourage and supports their waive in the use of contraceptives.
Family planning concept will be better accepted among religious groups, if presented as a means of child spacing birth. People are also likely to favour family planning if it positively linked with the health of the mother and child. The mass media in its programmes should try to bring out the dangers of abortion to health and that family planning is the surest way to avoid the need for abortion.
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review covered the area of research fro the perspective of the general overview of mass media coverage in disseminating information on the benefits of family with South East as the area of focus.
From the literature reviewed, the studies done by, in full demographic and health survey (DHS) reviewed in 1990 that most people are not aware of the modern contraceptive method and that woman tend to abandon contraception as a result remorse about side effect. On this note is stressed the importance of the mass media in fastening out strategies programmes that will set rewards straight and clear the misconception about contraception and family planning from the minds of people.
Adeniyi et al pp. 18 observes that many Nigerian men are not knowledgeable about family planning pointing out that it is the media role stimulate the interest of men in wanting to know more about family planning and also create awareness of and knowledge about contraceptive method. From the reduction, the research are all eager to know the role played by the mass media of family planning and how couples in South East state have accepted and adopted family planning.
The result of this study will be used to know if the aim and objectives of the planning parenthood of Nigerian could be achieved through the mass media. The research of this believe that new area of study should strife to find out the possibility of new and dynamic mass media message design that could be equally persuasive as they are informative.
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Family Planning in Nigeria