AN EVALUATION OF PRODUCT INNOVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR THE SURVIVAL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA
As part of this project work and so good a foundation of the work attention have been directed to many intelligent personnel’s who have done, some work in this topic.
The followings are the views of this scholar:
- Production innovation according to Actin defined as any new innovation or improved method of producing goods that gives the producer who first introduced it the advantage over its competitors that may amount to temporary monopoly.
Meaning of product: Product according to Kotter in (1980) is defined anything that can be adhered to meant a prevention of question which is used a consumption that might satisfy a need. Here product from his description of product, it then means, that a product can be an object or an item covered by a packaging or a service. A critical look at a product gives that consumers do not buy a product particularly because of its physical structure but due to service we hope and expect that the product will render. This is why Charles Marshal Rexton said that, in the factory we make hip sticks but in store we sell hope.
Therefore but also pointed out that purchasing agent do not buy quarter to drills but they buy quarter inch holes. Again a super sales man Elmer Chanlier would say don’t sell the steak, they sell the sizzle. All that we are pointed out is that we don’t sell a product because of its beauty but what hope the product can do. Also Bach Michael .J. (1968), defined product innovation as anything capable of satisfying a consumers need.
2.2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Product branding: As part of this project work, a look is also directed towards various views by different learned intellectuals on product branding as it related to product innovation as a strategy for survival. Ferred described branding as a name, term, symbols, design or a combination of product identities for the consumers.
Again, they saw it in other perspective but the centre to identify a particular product from competitive product. Cartl and Permealtt (1965) defined branding as the use of a name, term, design or a combination of these to identify a product. It includes the use of brand marks. The brand identities the product for the consumers to relate it to brand and product design.
Also Nigeria marketing association define brand as the way of any parameter as trade name or trade mark, brand mark, brand name, symbols or design or combination of two or more with the intention of identifying the goods and services of the seller, group, sellers differentiation of them from those of its competitors.
According to Gowon’s in (1962) defined product branding as the use of a designator, name or mark on a product to differentiate it from similar competitive product.
Davis while discussing on product policy says that product branding is part of product attributes, that consumer buy based on product branding. Branding a product helps consumers to evaluate product quality. Compare differences of product and make a choice among the various/numerous available brands.
- Brands is a name symbol, term or any other feature that identified the product offerings of the one seller and differentiate its product from its competitor.
- Brand mark: It refers to that part of brand in form of symbol design or distinctive packaging, coloring or lettering which can only be recognized by sight but cannot be spoke, example are the distinctive coloring and lettering of Coca Cola by Nigeria Bottling Company, the colonial gentleman on quarter oats products, the symbol of a Star used on Star Beer etc.
- Brand name: It is a world, and numbers which can be spoke.
- Trade mark: A trade make is a brand name, brand mark or a combination of both that is given legal protection.
A company’s registered trade mark cannot be used by another company because it is a personal property of the company who registered it.
A Registered Trade Mark is Followed by:
Branding can fully be defined as a procedure a company follows in researching, developing and implementing its brand name, brand mark and trade mark which a company uses to differentiate its product from similar product offerings by competitors. It should be noted that brand name and brand mark are marketing designations which do not have any legal protection against use by competitor, which are registered as trademark importance of branding.
There are several reason why a firm brands it products and the reason are:
- It helps for easier identification of products offered by a given firm.
- It enables a firm to achieve its objective of repeat purchase.
- It helps to develop a favourable relationship between a company and its customers.
- It enable a firm to develop a specific market position for its product.
- It reduces the problem of price comparison since it is different to compare price on two items bearing different brand names.
- It makes shopping easier because every brand represents certain product attributes and hence buying decision problems become minimal.
- It reinforces the prestige of the users.
- It is used in market segmentation to carter for the needs of the different market segments.
- Good brand enhances a company’s image thereby simplifying the introduction of additional products.
- Cooperation from distribution intermediaries is greater to well-know brand.
- Product Packaging: Product packaging is one of the most important elements in product innovation as a survival for Ama Breweries (Nig.) Plc (a renewed manufacturing firm in Nigeria).
A good product packaging, as part of productive function is still serving as a communication bell to buyers, describing how, when to use in term of product enclosed in a packaging we direct out attention to see how product packaging related to product innovation as a strategy for the survival. This is why some scholars, includes packaging as a part of product policy. Finally, product packaging involves the development of container, and graphic design for a product. A good product packaging influences a consumer attitude towards consumption of the product. This is why James B. been distilling company makes their packaging an important part of its products.
Beside, Lavish Bottles Ltd, emphasis on the important of packaging, by incorporating design related to polities, sports and animalism in packaging.
According to Stanton packaging is the generally group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Packaging is also defined as that aspect of product planning in which a firm researches, design and produces a container or wrapper which is capable of protecting the product, facilitation use of that product and promoting the products.
Depending on the nature of product, packaging is highly emphasized by most product managers due to its marketing implications once product manager described packaging as a silent salesman of an organization in a retail store.
A packaging refers to physical container, label and inserts. The container is of different of different forms such as cardboard, metals, plastic, wooden box, cellophane aluminum, grass, wax paper, wrapper etc.
The product brand name and label are closely related to package. The label appears on the package. A product label contains the brand name company logos, trademark, promotional message, ingredients, instructions for use etc.
BASIC FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING
The function of packaging includes:
- Packaging offers protection of products against physical and environmental hazard while it is shipped stored or handled, the physical and environmental hazards includes the effect of lights vibration evaporation breakage, infestation, spilling and stock.
- It facilitates product usage: Multiple product usage packaging and larger sizes promote great – product usage product use may be made to be easier through self applicator, squeeze tube. Flip quantities, the package initial quantity is used.
- Package serves as a medium of communication to the consumer.
- It serves as a tool for market segmentation when a firm offers two or several package shapes, sizes, colour or designs.
- It aids product identification – packaging helps to identify a product, on the shelf and distinguish it from other competitive brands.
FACTORS AFFECTING PACKAGING DECISIONS
In making packaging decisions, a number of factors are considered and they include the following:
- The image a firm seeks to establish in the mind of consumer’s with its products is influenced by colour, shape and quality of materials used.
- The firm must decide whether on family packaging should be used. If a family packaging is used, it means that there will be a common element on each package in product line. It makes all firm’s product offering to possess a common feature in packaging.
- A decision must be taken it standard packages will be used worldwide. If an international firm decide to use standard packaging worldwide, the firm may achieve worldwide, the firm may achieve worldwide recognition.
But using standard packages throughout the whole world may back fire because some colours, symbols shapes and designs may have negative innovations in certain countries.
- The cost of packaging should be considered in line with the objectives the firms is seeking to achieve through packaging.
- A decision must be made on choice of packaging materials such as paper board, plastic, metal, glass, wood etc for instance a cellophane is used the package will be very attractive but it can easily arouse fear. Also paperboard is relatively sharpen but is often difficult to open.
- The firm must decide on the basic features which must be incorporated in the package. The features include carry handles, shrew on top, see through bags seal and cartons, power sprouts etc. these features may provide a firm with a differential advantage.
- The firm must decide on the size, colour and shape of its packages. In choosing package size, factors such as convenience, shelf-life (how long a product retails it freshness) and competitive are considered. The image a firm wishes to capture through high its products affects the colour and shape of the packages. The use of small, medium and larger size enables a firm to maintain a large shelf space, appeal to different consumer group and make things difficult for competitors to win whole sales and retailer support.
- The appearance of the label and inserts must be put into consideration. The firm must determine the placement, content a size and prominences of the labels package inserts like receipts to direction for use must be noted on the label.
- The use of multiple packaging must be considerable. This is a situation where two or more product item are in one container. It may involve the same product or different products. The essences of multiple packaging are increase consumption get consumers to buy an assortment of items and possibly get them to try a new product.
- The idea of wrapping potion of a derivable product individually should be considered. If portions of a product are wrapped individually. It may offer a firm a competitive advantage through it may be expensive.
- Another area to consider is re-use packaging. The firm must decides whether to produce package that can be used for other purposes after the original content has be consumed. Re-use packaging stimulates repeat purchases as consumer to get more sets of the container.
DISADVANTAGES OF PACKAGING
- Packaging causes environmental pollution. Here, the consumer desires for convince runs across with their desire for a clean environment.
- It depletes out natural resources. This point is offset by the fact that firms increasingly make use of recycled materials and effective packaging also reduce.
- It is extremely expensive, but effective package reduces transportation cost and losses due to product damages.
- It is deceptive and misleading due to inconsistent of designations of package size and dishonesty of label. However, government regulations on packaging have reduce the impact of critics.
- Product Labeling: Product innovation as a strategy involved a lot of activities which producers or sellers apply in order to see that his products are commanding reasonable market share profitability. Product labeling is a part of the activities found in product innovation as a strategy for the survival of manufacturing firm of Nigeria.
Different authors have different views about product labeling. According to Charles D. scheme and Reuben N. Smith (1952) defined labeling as a part of features that add to ten noble utility. A label supplies information about the product and its seller/product. This may be printed as part of the packaging or its on an attached to the product.
Bush and Houston defined product labeling as a communication instrument designed to communicate or transfer information with actual and potential customers of a firms product.
A label is that part of the product that contains all the relevant information about the product of the manufacturer.
It is also described as part of the package or as tag directly attached to the product.
TYPES OF LABEL
- Brand label: A label is said to be brand label when the brand name alone is attached to the product or package.
- Grade label: This is the type of label which identifies the quality with word letter or number. These are products that grader labeled A,B,C or 123
- Descriptive label: This type of label gives complete information about the product. Its use ingredients brand name, performance, direction for use or the other features of the products.
- Product Positioning: Ideal University of Benin (1941) described product positioning according to John L. Spinge Editor of the professional report Washington D.C (use) said that in the early fifties, some companies in the United State of America realize that finishing another on the basis of their goods or services to enable them have distribution possessed by no other competitions. He then defined production positioning as involving the creation of unique product or services and using such qualities to gain favourable consideration from consumer over other competitive product or services in the market.
Again, product positioning according to Jerome E. M Carthy Williams was seen in different way.
Furthermore, they defined product positioning as the position of a product in the eye of consumers when compared with other competing brand.
According to Kotler (1969) defined product packaging as activities involve in designing and producing container wrapper for a product from this definition from Philip Kotler, it means that product packaging is not only a container/ wrapper and designing a container if included in packaging.
Bustech and Michealm J. Houston in (1942) viewed product policy in marketing management said that product attribute a greatness considerable importance to firm candid still convenience gave a vivid definition of product packaging by saying that “product packaging charges are often key element in re-merchandizing” this definition is stressing that for an effective selling, sale product packaging be involve. Also Patrick Lyand on the department of management studies University at Calaba in his view about product includes packaging as part a product it therefore means that product packaging cannot be separated from product this is the development of container graphic designer for a product.
This is why James B. bean distilling company make this packaging and important part of its product.
Besides, Lawish bottles Ltd emphasized on the important of packaging by incorporating related to policy sport and packaging.
Product according to Kotler (1980) is defined as anything that can be adhered to meant a preventive question used in a consumption that might satisfy a need. Here anything that can satisfy the needs and want is classified as a product.
From this description of a product, it is assumed that a product can be item enclosed in a package or saver .
Critical look at a product gives that consumers do not buy a product primarily because of its physical structure or attribute but the satisfaction they will drive from these product.
- Product Cannibalization: Product cannibalization is one of the important elements involves on product innovation strategy. It is all about how an introduction at a new product affect the already existing product in the market sometimes the effect may be negative in the hand, the introduction may have positive implication on the existing products.
As Bustech and Michel J. Houston put it, product cannibalization is a process on which a company derived from the sales of the company’s existing product. It means that the sales potentiality of the introduced product is derived from the sales.
Again Scheme and Reuben M. Smith described product cannibalization as the danger that the addition of the new product may cut into the sales of the already existing product. Emphasis is laid here on the negative implication of product cannibalization, Charles product may lose its sales capability due to the introduction of a new product.
Product cannibalization is viewed by authors is generally though sometimes used by some companies when they want to replace an old or unprofitable product with a new product.
The two (old and new) products must be same especially in need or want satisfaction so that the introduction of a new product will not out down the sales of the old product. On this manner this product will be eliminated from the market. All times firms uses product cannibalization introduces competition between two similar product within the firm.
- Product Detection: this is another important aspect of product innovation as a strategy for the survival of an indigenous manufacturing firm (Ama Breweries Enugu). It is all about the renowned by an old product to be remove or detected by an old product or it could be a newly established product. Product detection must be surrounded by some certain circumstances through scholars and authors on what it must ought to be. Product detection according to Butsch and Micheal J. Houston (1940) defined product detection as the carefully dropping of a product at the decline stage of its life cycle. It does not mean that any product at the declining stage would be removed or dripping or detected. It times as had been mentioned earlier, new product can be detected its situation proves. Any product that cost more income to the company than its benefits should be detected out of the market regardless of it stage in life cycle.
Keneth P. Dams called producer detection as product elimination, he saw product detection as a strategy which will only be adopted when product have a developing problem.
Product detection is also defines by Pride/ Ferrl as getting rid of some product, although Pride/Ferrl called to motion when the detection is to be done since product detection occurs when a product is developing problem are noticed in this view, Ben Eniss in (1948) defined product out of the market as the decline, storage of the product life cycle.
- SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEWS
Product positioning as defines by Pride/ Ferrl is defined towards to meet fraud and maintain as former interded, product concept is in consumers mind position as putting the product in a manner gives the product all desired characteristics a consumer wants from a product.
Secondly, product market use the opportunity of positioning to include those age attributes that the various features and benefits of a product give it an image which consumer and marketers try to position. The contradictory findings lend us to pose a contingency framework for the new product and C & O Project models.