Evaluation of the Impact of Road Network in the Selling of Agricultural Products in Anambra State


This chapter tells us about the definition of agriculture in Anambra state and in Njikoka Local government Anambra State, brief explanation of agricultural product, functions of agriculture, importance of agriculture, problems of agricultural road network, researchers view on agricultural road network problems, government intention, explanation of road network, and contribution of road network to agriculture.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of animal, plant, fungi and other life forms for foods, fiber, biofuel, drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

Agricultural products are foods fibers fuels and raw materials

Examples of food are fruits, vegetables, meat and spices. Examples of fibers include wool cotton and raw materials includes, cumber and bamboo.


The road network in this system of interconnected roads designed to accommodate wheeled road going vehicles and pedestrian traffic.

The road network consists of a system of inter connected panel carriage ways which are designed to carry buses, cars and goods vehicle; the road network generally forms the basic level of transport infrastructure within urban areas and will link with all other areas, both within and beyond the boundaries of the urban area.

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A road network can be divided into parts such as

  1. Intersections
  2. Controlled or uncontrolled intersections
  • Roundabouts
  1. Urban roads
  2. Rural roads
  3. Motor ways
  • Bicycle lanes
  • Footsteps and pedestrian areas
  1. Bridges, tunnels
  2. Pedestrian crossings

Furthermore, several road-sides system and monitoring system are used to control the traffic such as;

  1. Intersection control with traffic lights
  2. Variable message sign (VMS)
  • Dynamic road information panels (DRIP)
  1. Loop detectors.


  1. It provides food and fiber rapidly expanding population its growing income and wealth.
  2. Agriculture provides food not only for domestic economy but also exportable raw materials from there foreign exchange earnings can be released.
  3. It contributes significantly to gross national product (GNP) of the country.
  4. Agriculture and related land use can have beneficial or harmful effects on the environment.
  5. Agriculture remains a principal force in sustain to operation and growth of the economy.
  6. The maintenance and dynamic of rural communities is based to sustaining agro economy.
  7. Improving the quality life and assuming the very survival of rural residents particularly of the very young women, the elderly and other married group.


  1. Agriculture contributes to natural revenue; agriculture is the main sources of National income for most developing countries, however for the developed countries, agriculture contributes a smaller percentage to their national income.
  2. Agriculture supplies food as well feed; Agriculture sector provides foods for domestic animals, cow provides people with milk which is a form of protein food. Moreover, livestock also meets people food requirement.
  3. Agriculture provides employment opportunity to a very large percentage of the population.
  4. Agriculture is a source of livelihood; the main source of livelihood of many people is agriculture. This high percentage in agriculture is as a result of non-development of non-agricultural activities to abs or the fast growing population. However, most people in developed countries do not engage in agriculture.

Relishing this, the federal government in many different ways made effort to ensure the availability of enough food for the growing population.

These various past governments have also paid much attention to agriculture through the launching of different programmes such as the green revolution, the school to land programme and lately the directorate for food, roads and rural infrastructure.

To achieve the objective of the various programmes, it was observed that this is feasibly, education etc. in the rural areas where the majority of the farmers lives.



Many researchers have dealt with problems related to the subject matter of this project, one of such researchers Izuchukwu (1992) works on the marketing problems of agricultural products in Abakiliki, local government area. One of these main objectives was to ensure that the storage and transportation of agricultural produce are effective.

And these products are available in the different areas of need and are of reasonable prices from this work a lot of factors was discovered to contribute to low production and official marketing system that exist in his area study, some of the factor he identified include lack of road and storage facilities that was as a result of low level of education.

His research relates works in the areas that transportation problem, the research encountered the objectives of this study. In his recommendation, he suggested that efforts should be guided towards the provision of storage and transportation facilities as it would help stabilize the price of product throughout the years and for efficient selling of agricultural products in urban and other area of Anambra State.

In another research in related field by Onyebuchi J.P he conducted his research work on the selling of palm produce in Anambra State.

The general purpose of this study is to evaluate the pricing distribution, processing and storage strategies in selling of palm products and finally to make recommendation on how to increase the scarcity.

Besides on this above objectives, he went further to state as follows.

  1. Low pricing is the cause of decline and scarcity.
  2. There are four layers in the distribution channels.
  3. The processing and storage facilities are crude and inadequate.
  4. The product decline because of availability to close substitutes.
  5. More oil palm fruits are being cut sown each year while less are being planted.
  6. Procurement of palm fruits is tedious and time consuming.

He used charts (bars) to establish his assumptions and come to the conclusion that;

  1. Government should assume the role of buyers of the products.
  2. Government should be adviser to the producers.
  3. More farmers’ road should be constructed.
  4. Old roads should be obtained effectively.
  5. Transportation modes defined to provide linkage with old palm plantation which makes for easy evaluation.

This research is much related to the present study since palm produce constitutes a major component of agricultural produce and especially with regards to its distribution which is made through road transport system.

In another research by Okeke C.O (1981) evaluate on the impact of road transport system on agricultural marketing in Abakiliki and Ebonyi State, he attended to determine and evaluate the effect of road network system on the marketing of agricultural products.

There should be different type of vehicle carrying agricultural products and other passengers.

Writing on the importance of road transport to agriculture Nwokoye (1980) observed that from basic economic theory, production will never be until what is produce get to the final consumer and is only through transportation that these objectives can be effectively be achieved.

In this view, road network in relation to agriculture in Anambra State is predominantly by road in which the vehicle traffic consists of Lorries, tripper’s buses and vehicle also pedestrian and transportation by head and not for short distance market within rural area.

He point out that this mode of transportation is mostly applicable to some agricultural products which requires movement only over short distance to the market places, between neighbors, villages and nearby towns which is however a low and efficient more to transportation.

This is called head porterage, it is the oldest in the system but was largely made possible by the existence of paths which were not conductive for vehicles and bicycles as selling means of agricultural transport, when observed in the role government that food and agriculture production in Nigeria is from the poor condition of toad bases, trains etc are inadequate and not well equipped to meet their needs to good marketing.

In many cases, transport system change is not fixed to produce in time of the year (season) the prospect of return load for the vehicles.

They also noticed that there is complete lack of regulation and standardization of the carrier trade especially with regard to separating the passengers from the transporters.

They also pointed out that lorry owner refuse to carry food stuffs but accept the passengers. In cases they accept to carry food stuffs, their charges will be so high to pay. They however, noted that the main requirement of an efficient transport system is not that this lost or charges to the road distribution in Anambra State can affect agricultural production.

The map in appendix c shows the whole road network in Anambra State while table in appendix ii shows the distribution of road in eight (8) local government areas of Anambra State.

The finally concluded by providing that the concurrent state of rural structure in the state is not capable of overtaking the present and further food needs of the country and Anambra State in particular and further commented that structure change must be made the process of modernization in terms of Federal roads to encourage production.


In Njikoka Local Government in Anambra State, the basic infrastructure are poorly provided and this causes distribution bottleneck which in term increase the rate of price inflation to this effect, the presence of these infrastructural facilities including good road network affects the overall development of the economy and the selling of agricultural products in particular which in turn affect increase productions.

Road constitutes perharps the most important in the structural transformation on Nigeria agriculture. The importance of an efficient and effective road network in the selling of agricultural products cannot be over emphasized.


In an attempt to highlight the contribution of rural road network to agriculture participants as a similar problem and prospects by the central banks of Nigeria in April 1981 identified the key area as.

  1. Reduced transportation cost: Over 6000 of the power by the human muscles. They therefore recommend accelerated coverage of rural area with rural roads to reduce input transportation cost especially with regards to the human energy cost of head portage spent in taking long distance.
  2. Accelerated delivery of farm input: massive application of long and technology package is the key to the structure transformation of Nigeria Agriculture. Roads also holds the key that promote delivery of fertilizers, seeds pesticides, to farm the need them.

Production of farm produce within different agroclimatological zones according to comparative advantages holds the key to the efficient utilization of the nations of resources. Rural roads constitute perhaps the most integrated food production system.

Storage and processing plant are addition, to the transport network from that “the relation to transport is obvious since often, it is described to retain crops rather than dump them on the market, all at once which produces disastrous effect on prices and returns to farmers.

He note that storage capacity reduce the congestion the transport system that results at harvest so that investment in storage may be more economically, their provision peak transport capacity. Storage capacity of the right size and the level of right location are needed according to Owen Wilfred to ensure that what is produced is protected from the weather, disease and infestation. Since improvement in the organization and technology storage is one of the quickness and most effective way of increasing the marketable surplus and output of the farmers.

In a similar view, Ukwu observed while the role of large scale processing cannot realize its potential as long as it remains an urban industry.

He therefore advised that “for maximum local the emphasis on food processing technology should be on small and medium scale plants which can be disposed at local government areas levels or below.

Kohls in his own view, conducted by observing that the efficiency or agricultural marketing had under implication, not only for the efficiency or agricultural economy but also for the levels well being of the entire population.

Acti observed in his own article no “Significance of transformation in the Nigerian economy observed that since all the economy activities rely on the transportation system for movement or a major area of movement concern and this reflected in the relating  high transportation as shown below.


Plan period Allocation N Billion % of total
1st 1962-69 12.2 65
2nd 1970-74 34.0 70
3rd 1975-80 80.3 83
4th 1981-85 91.0 85

Source: 4th National Development plan of 1981-85, federal government of Nigeria.


The intention of the Anambra State government in the above matter is to see that all administrative and agricultural centers are accessible at reasonable cost.

The Anambra State government in an effort to improve the road network system in the state through the rural development authority (RDA) is presently constructing about 200kms of roads in various rural communities in the state.

The authority also rehabilitates some roads in the various communities in the last fiscal year. Effort of the state branch of the directorate for food, roads and rural infrastructure (DFRRI) and the task force on urban area maintenance as various road networks in the state.

The different integrities of roads are the truck road “A” “B” and “C” at the local feeder roads and it is here that emphasis is to be placed.

Idachaba observed on his own that disparities in federal roads densities among the state store and within roads to scene destination regional agricultural production partners, “he noted that extension area with agricultural production fail to be exploited because trucks roads or link with terminal market are poor and fragmented.

He stressed that as the needs of the economy increased it become apparent that the few existing roads network was not enough to cope with the growing various need of economy, hence further serious efforts at roads construction were made”

Idachaba (1985) further observed that “road distribution in Anambra state federal road range from zero kilometers in Anambra, Aguata and Njikoka Local government area giving a simple range kilometer.

Average of federal government roads length per local government is 30.2 kilometer. For state range is 15.4 kilometers in Anambra to 93.2 kilometers in Onitsha local government area giving a sample range of 102.55km?

Average state road per local government is 50km for local government roads the range is from zero kilometers in Enugu and idemili to 2045km in Aguata Local government area, or a sample range of 350.2km.

The importance of this section is to show how far right location is needed according to Owen (1980), to ensure that what is produced is protected from the weather disease and technology of strong in one of the quickest and most effective ways of increasing the marketable surplus output of the farmers.

In a similar view, Ukwu (1981) observed that “while the role of large scale processing is important, it should be noted that food processing cannot realize its potential as long as it remains an urban industry, he therefore adjusted that “for maximum local impact, the emphasis on food processing technology should be on small and medium scale plants which can be disposed at local government area level or below.

Kehls (1980) discovered in his owns views conducted by observing that the “the efficiency or agricultural marketing has under implication only for the efficiency or agricultural economy but also for use below that goods be moved quickly with little delays.

The recommended that rural roads should be provided since they are very essential for the prompt execution produce from the farm to market place.

Owen Wilfred (1981) observed that “the construction of a road may motivate an immediate response in improved agricultural outputs, this observation was based on his recognition of inputs that transportation can make to agriculture this views is in the same line with one held by Titi-lola and Igben in his new view setter morls to and end to cultivate before these results according to him can only be expected when a road is built through a fertile area inhabited by enterprising farmers and where there are urban or foreign markets sufficiently accessible.

He quickly pointed out that there were many examples of road that have built under less favorable condition which have bed to little or no appreciate increase agricultural output for example there is an absence to markets or inputs necessary to increase production.

These factors can individually or in combination limit the development impact of better access.

Adremot A, industry research in Agricultural marketing that the present state of transport system is poor and does not encourage increase agricultural production. The system makes the transportation of farm products from the farm to the area of the needs so difficult. It also encourages wastage of products, time and money.

Titiola so and Igben transport again observed that the role of motorable feeder roads is directly to that amount of materials surplus that can reach to the market. In their opinion, through the Nigerian farmers’ skill consumer and appreciated amount of their products, the amount that could reach the market from individual farms is determined by the mode of transportation.

It was pointed out that by Okereke Constitution Company that the present mode of transportation do not led themselves to evaluation of large amounts of materials surplus or includes farmers to produce large quantities of marketable surplus.

The reasons for the review of road network in the place fully appreciate the importance of the study especially with regard to agricultural selling.


Agriculture which is used to be the main and backbone of the Nation’s economy during the pre-colonial and colonial era has invariably become the forgotten sector of our economy in Njikoka Anambra State. Instead more emphasis is wanted to identify oil sector. Nobody wants to identify with agricultural products that used to be the commodities for both local and international marketers. They story is almost in all parts of the state.

Programmes and scheme which includes national acceleration food production programme (NEEP) national grain and root crops Production Company, the integrated rural development and direct production activities of the various communities’ development. Authorities were also engaged in other business activities.

In the other hand road network has been the problem of farmers because the production of agricultural products passes through the road network before get to the point of selling or the final consumer, bad road network is a problem to the selling of agricultural products in Nigeria Anambra State.

Therefore, government should set a scheme to see the road network of the communities for easy accessible of the farmers and their products.


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