EFFECTS OF PERSONNEL POLICIES ON ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMMCO LTD. EMENE ENUGU)
There has been much debate on what types or forms of personnel policies that should be promugulated by an organization that will help it to achieve its set objective. Also what forms will such policies take so as to motivate workers to put up effort toward achieving greater organizational productivity.
It is worth emphasing the fact that, the extent on which a policy is designed to help determine a workers performance. A policy on “motivation is defined as a set of those things which help to satisfy a subordinates derived desires, needs wishes etc and induce him to act in a desired manner.
Therefore, policy is a plan of action, or statement of aims and ideas on how to achieve a given set objectives.
In formulating organizational policies is usually taken to identify the needs and culture plus individual difference of the members of the work force. In this case therefore, the concept of what people are looking at influence managerial behaviour. To be able to formulate and implement policies with a view to effectively achieve desired goals the effective manager usually draw from various theories and in their effort to harmonies individual and organizations objective which is the key to leading.
- THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT AREA
A review of some of the related literature on the best way to manager organization and human resources through a set of policies will help us to make influence and draw up conclusion and come out with zeal oriented.
It is important to note the fact that the extent to which a policy is designed is to determine a workers performance. Motivations policy, for instance helps to show how workers react when an incentives is gives.
This why motivation can be defined as a set of those thing which helps to satisfy a subordinates desire, need, wishes and induce him to act in a desired manner.
Therefore policy is a plan of action or statements which is set to achieve a given objectives.
Organizational policy tends to identify the needs and people culture and individual differences of he members of the work force. In this case therefore the idea of what people are used to influence managerial behaviour.
The personnel policy is also the only instrument needed in an organization to formulate and implement policies.
It also helps the organizations in the recruitment of few and their training staff.
- SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITHIN THE SUBJECT AREA
The review of some related literature on the best way to manage organizational and human resources through a set of policies will help us to make inference and draw conclusion there upon.
Some of the people that contribute in this school of thought brought upon to discuss.
Taylore (1963) in his scientific approach to the best way to manage in order to stimulate increased productivity or effectiveness has the following contentions to make.
The use of science, creating group harmony and co-operation, achieving maximum output and developing workers is the sure way to achieve increased productivity through greater efficiency and increased productivity through greater efficiency and increase payment of workers.
In conclusion, he intended that management devices in order to attain organizational effectiveness.
Cantr (1901) stressed the need for training and development of workers as a way to increase efficiency.
He emphasized scientific selection of workers and “Harmonious cooperation between lectures (workers and management.
Gilberth (1900) knows primarily for “time and motion studies” focused on human aspect of worth.
The contention was the need to understand workers personality and need encorporate them while formulating policies.
Mayo (1933) in his “Human Relations movement” stressed that man as economic animals cannot only be motivated by financial incentives. He contended after undergoing on his “Hathorn experiment” that social and psychological factors were responsible for the behaviour of attitudes and relationship of workers in Western Electric Company.
Subject to certain constraints, these view to management analysis can be summarized as follows:
- The group behaviour approach characterized by its emphasis on behaviour of people. In group based on social and psychological. This study of group behaviour partners is called “organizational behaviour” other pattern of management analysis includes.
- Cooperative social system approach
- Socio-technical system approach
- Decision theory approach
- Mathematical or management science approach among others.
- The interpersonal behaviour approach focuses on human relations leadership and motivation based out why and how to approach the issues
The contention in each view has been that policies and strategies aimed at achieving greater efficiency and productivity should incorporate the main ideas as contained in whatever pattern of approach adopted, while formulating policies.
According to Baymound (1975) in his Dval-model they” the managerial task is to integrate organizational variables like goals, technology and structures with human demoaphic characterization into an effective and efficient technical, milles identify three theories of management call three (3) managerial models namely traditional model, human model and human resources model. He contends that in policy formulation and implementation, managers tasks should be under.
- Among relation model to make each feel useful and important, keep his subordinates informed and listen to their objectives to his plans and self-control on routine.
- Traditional model to closely supervise and control his subordinates break task into simple repetitive easily leaned operation.
- Human resources model to make use of his “untapped” human resources create enabling environment for worker and lecturals to contribute to the full participation their services.
A critical look at each of these schools of though reveal an identical effort of what management should do to workers to enable them increase productivity and help in the attainment of organizational set objectives.
Though each school his its particular characteristics management should adopt an election approach in policy making. It should be dynamic and adaptive so that he destined goal and standard set for its employees are of organizational policies can be said to be generally acceptable.
It depends on the nature, culture, mission or objectives of he enterprise and the nature, needs and student differences to the lecturals in the institute under review.
- SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEMS STUDY
The type of personnel policies operative in an organization varies from one company to another. This differences is as a result of nature, culture, mission or purpose of the organization and nature, ideas and individual differences of the employee in that organization under review.
Personnel management is concerned with human side of an enterprise.
This make people particularly those not in the field to have different concepts about it some of these concept or approaches are
- The mark and classification that make the personnel function by MOXION, G.R (1951). He classified this elements into six elements which are employment, wages, joint consultant. As at this time, moxion believe that personal management was accepted for guiding and advertising management rather than regarding it as an executive function.
- This is a stage of change. In this contribution was monitored, Erid (1966) in which he said that personnel management should be seen as agents of change because of studies of social aspect of technical change in relation to the introduction of computer and the need to develop a social technical change in an organization.
The conclusion here is that development of change within an organization should be that of the personnel function.
- The behavioural scientist like Elton Mayo, Fredrick herzberg, Abraham Maslow, Doughlas Megregor etc. were brought into the study of both individual and group behaviour.
Personnel management was extended to include matters as corporate planning, manpower planning, organizational structure, remuneration and employee relations.
- This is about relationship between line and staff concept of personnel function.
The line mangers or officials where activities are directly related to the objective the organization. Staff manager produces value which are consumed by the entire organization value which are consumed by the entire organization. A general manager also maintain three levels of relationship.
- A staff relationship exist between him and the deputy rector because he advises him on personnel issue.
- A functional or specialist relationship exist between him and both functional directors and the head of departments, with whom he has direct contact in a purely advisory capacity. Non can command or direct each other.
- A direct relationship exist between him and his own departmental staff since he is the head man that must be obeyed
Since personnel management is concerned with the deployment and employment of academic and non-academic workers in the organization so that the objective of the organization will be met and adopted with the changing circumstance or conditions. Flipoo, Edwin (1980) defined it as planning, organization, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human services to the end that individual organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.
In formulating organization policies operative in various organization, there are the following policies operative in various organization.
POLICY ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTIONS
Inferring from what are contained in the table above, in relation to response from 360 respondent, 260 staff contended that he policy on training and development programmes, is effective, with a percentage margin of about 72.22%, while those whose response were not in affirmative occupy a percentage of margin of 27.78% with 100 staff interviewed.
This is clear evidence that the organization operates an effective policy on training and development programme for its employee.
This can be illustrated further a pie-chart as shown below.
Those whose response were in the affirmation as to the effectiveness of training and development porgramme occupy a degree of 209.99 while 100.01 goes to those whose response were not affirmation can be deduced from the pie-chart above.
Going by the responses as indicated in the above table, a total of 150 staff answered in affirmative on the nature of total of 150 staff answered in affirmative on the nature of relationship between the employee and employee being cordial, while 210 respondents did not agree that the relationship is conducive.
The responses occupy percentage level of 41.67 and 38.33 respectively.
2.4 DIFFERENT METHOD OF STUDYING THE PROBLEMS
As we have seen, that personnel management are concerned with all activity of organization. It is pertinent to discuss some of this problem that is associated with the personal policies in the effective running of the organization.
Personal policies is a human resources function. One concerned with vitalizing the organizational structure which requires that work is first defined them derided and finally people are assigned to its various field of learning. Organizations showed by concerned with the types of employees they need, particularly educated and trained lecuturals, because they are the key determinant of the success or failure of the institute.
Fundamentally, the function of the personnel management involves staffing which matches the capability of people with their job authority over the performance of their subordinates certainly, there are problems associated with recruitment, selection placement and development of people within an organization, are discussed as follows.
1) Recruitment of staff: This is the first problems of personnel policies in an organization. It is also the first process of filling a vacancy, the consideration of sources of suitable candidates, making contacts with those candidates and attracting applications from them. This basic problem of recruitment is know what staff are required and where to get them.
This simple statement outline the standard procedures used in recruitment.
- A staff requisition form is required to be completed by he head of the department where the vacancy arises, nothing full details of the vacancy. This can be checked against the organization’s establishment by the personnel departments who would arrange to interest the establishment
- All likely sources of recruitment must be notified of the vacancy and adversities placed were necessary.
- Short-list is drawn and interview is arranged.
- Interview is then conducted structurally using structurally using standard procedure and functions of the company
- Unsuccessful candidates are informed of the decision.
- Successful candidates are informed and organization records updated.
The primary requisites for effective recruitment is that the organizations must know the requirement for the essential to write up the job description and job specification of the vacant position. When this is done, the organizations then seek for qualified candidates.
2) SELECTION: The first thing to do in the selection process is to set up the criteria on which the candidate will be examined. This will be followed by the preliminary screening in which applications, curriculum vitae, work records and similar sources are reviewed. In recent times organizations are increasingly using written test to precede an oral interview.
These test may be in form of aptitudes (potential ability) achievement (knowledge) or mental ability (general intelligence).
After this, the next step is to invite the candidates who were successful in the written test for oral interview
The interview focuses on all the formation obtain from previous stages of selection process. Usually, a panel is draw up and numbers are supplied with assessment sheets for recording during and structured or unstructured. In structured interview, the interviewer knows in advance the question to be asked and merely precedes along the line, while recording the interviews responses. The advantage of the methods is that it permits uniformity and a systematic courage of all information teamed necessary for the position while at the same time minimizing the interviews personal biased and prejudices.
Unstructured interview have no pre-determined question for the interview the interviewee largely determines the cause of the interview and leads the interviewers.
Thereafter reference checking is made on appointable candidates. This includes gathering and using information about applicants relating to their former work experience, school performance, physical and health, character and public records such as litigation or bankruptcy.
References are usually made form personal, academic and past employment categories and the degree of thoroughless of reference checks will depend on the information’s attached to the position that is to be filled.
3) PLACEMENT: – Placement starts with sending out an appointment letters. When the successful candidates report to work, the important task of orienting new director and HOD must be handed with extreme care so as to obtain good result. Just like a university freshman will learn his ways around the campus, so also will new lecturals need a well-planned orientation which can be crucial to future success.
The orientation should include technical as well as social aspects. The new lectural should be told what is required for him and how the job should be performed.
A conscious effect must be made to integrates him into the social orientation reduces an employee’s satisfaction and performance. The supervisors to conduct the orientation will greatly enhance the climate necessary for a quick integration of new managers.
4) DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERS: Once a manager is at work, he will need updating ad new techniques develop. The process of improving a managers knowledge and capabilities in order to increase the competence of the organizations management term is called management and development.
The objectives of management development is to facilitates the achievement of organizational goals. Indeed, managers have the responsibilities for their subordinate so that they can reach their full potentials.
The adequacy of management development of organizational goals.
Indeed, managers have the responsibilities for their subordinates so that they can reach their full potentials.
The adequacy of management development programmes not only provided lecturals and work with skill they need for successful job performance and career progress but in fast changing world.
The need to maintain the job process in policies procedures has been recognized by the institute of personnel management (IPM), which has urged codes of recruitment, selection, placement and development of workers, in order to promotes good relations between prospective employers and the who apply for the job they offer.
This research work was carried out to find out the various personnel policies usually operative in organization and their related effects on their effectiveness or otherwise.
In the pursuit of this study, the institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu chosen as the custody. During the study, the problem and prospects of the institute were identified in relation to the policies in organization.
As can be inferred from the response of these interviewed during the study, the problems areas include those from the intermediates levels and the junior staff cadre.
- In respect of the staff remuneration, the present level payment does not seem encouraging.
- The problem with policy is associated with policy is associated with its formulation and implementation.
- There is the problem associated with overseas training programmes.
- The available welfare services at the institute is not adequate and therefore need improvement.