The Effects on the Ban of Sale of Handout by Lecturers: A Case Study of Ishieke Campus, Ebonyi State University.
The ban on the selling of handout by the management of Ebonyi State University has affected the students negatively. The consequences can be direct or indirect, for instance, the academic performance of the students has been affected negatively as a result of the ban on the selling of handout by the management of Ebonyi State University, and this is because handouts are produced according to the demands of educational institutions. According to Schneiden (1986) stated that if a change is to be effected in the individual and the particular charge settings such change must stand at the group levels, otherwise it many be difficulty for such changes to be effected in the individual.
Students seek relief from rising prices of textbooks through the purchase of handout which tend to be less expensive. Handout have become the primary technique instrument for most students of higher learning, handout are making it increasing easy for students to access materials for their academic works and most lecturers offered the use of handout at lower prices. The sale of handout by lecturers has served the students a lot in exchange of the stress involve in going to buy textbooks in the school library and increasing price of textbooks. The sell of handout by the lecturers have provide a more efficient ways to connect the student and the lecturers together because some lecturers derived more satisfaction in selling their handout by themselves and fixing the prices of the handouts rather than allowing the school management to fix the prices of their educational materials and sold them based on the fixed price. According to the 2nd Edition of a study by the United States public Interest Reason group (US PIRG) published in February, 2005 textbooks prices are increasing at more than four times, the inflation rate for all finished goods, this indicate the high cost of textbooks which made it difficult for textbooks and other materials to be accessible to the students. According to the research conducted by G.A.O (2005) stated that the following are closely behind annual increment institution and fees at post recording institution, college textbooks and supply price have risen twice in the rate of annual inflation over the last two decades, rising at an average price increases by three percent (3%) per year, collage textbooks and supply prices trailed tuition and fee increases, which averaged seven percent 7% per year. Since December, 1986, textbook and supply prices have nearly tripled, increasing by 186 percent, while tuition and fees increased by 240 percent and overall prices grew by 72 percent, while increases in textbook and supply prices have followed increases in tuition and fees, the cost of textbooks and supplies for degree seeking students as a percent of tuition and fees variable by the types of institution at ended. For example the average estimated cost of books and supplies per first time, full time students for academic year 2003-2004 was N88,800 at 4-years public institution, about 20 percent of the cost intuition and fees. At 2-years public institutions, which low income students are more likely to pursue a degree programme, tuition and fees are lower, the average estimated cost of books and supplies per first time, full time student web 1886 in academic year 2003-2004 representing almost three quarters of the cost of tuition fees. As a result of higher education cost in rise of school feed in Ebonyi State University. Majority of candidates who gave admission, the increment which is about 100% for indigenes and 200% for non-indigenes, even some those students that was able to pay their tuition fees find it difficult to gain enough access to educational materials as a result of the high rise of textbooks of which this sell of handouts by lecturers have provided a more efficient ways to connect the students and the lecturer together, which this problem would have been minimized if the ban on the sell of handout is lifted.
According to 2005 government accountability office report on college textbooks said since 1980’s textbooks and supplies prices have risen twice the rate of inflation in the past two decades, while many groups have assigned blame to publishers and books stores the high cost of textbooks is unproductive and without merit. The report called on all parties within the industry to work together to find productive solutions which includes a movement towards the sale of handout by the lecturer in Ebonyi State University.
Statement of the Problem
The ban on the selling of handout by the school management does not aught well for students. The ban have limited the academic performance of students in Ebonyi State University as a result of limited accessibility to educational materials by the students because of high cost of textbooks and school fees, students who cannot afford the money to buy textbook cannot be able to gain access to much information. Handout always serves as an alternative interest to textbook because handouts are cheap and affordable by the students unlike textbook which are more expensive.
The ban on the selling of handout by the management have cased difficult opportunity by the students in gaining access to the materials needed for their required information and this have depreciated their academic performance, because of students inaccessibility to much educational materials as a result of high cost of textbooks. The ban on the selling of handout by the management in Ebonyi State University has made some students to involve in the various kinds of examination misconduct.
On the process of carrying out this research the following questions are formulated to guide the study.
- What are the effects of the ban on the sale of handout by lecturers in Ebonyi State University on academic performance of students?
- How does the ban of selling of handout linked to student’s involvement in crime?
- How does selling of handout leads to explosion in Ebonyi State University?
- What are the possible measures to solve the above stated problems?
Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to find out the effect on the ban of sales of handouts by the lecturers in Ebonyi State University.
The study tries to find out the followings:
- To find out how the ban on the sale of handout by school management affects the students’ academic performances.
- To find out how does the ban on the sale of hand out heads to students’ involvement in crime
- To find out how the ban on the sale of hand out heads to probation and expulsion.
- To find out how ban on the sale of hand out by lecturers affect the lecturer themselves
Significance of the Study
This study have both theoretical and practical significant. Theoretical and practically, this study will be very important to the students and the management of Ebonyi State University especially at this time there is poor academic performances of students of Ebonyi State University is depreciated.
This study will also enable the school management to find alternative solutions that will enable the students to give access to more information. In addition, the findings of this study will serve as an academic reformed work and contributed too much significance on the subject matter.
Practically, the finding and recommendation of this study will be useful for the management and stakeholders in Ebonyi State University to realize how they can provide another alternative that will empower and improve the academic performances of the students.
Scope of the Study
The aspect of the problem covered by the study is how the ban on he selling of handout by the lecturers in Ebonyi State University causes poor academic performances of students and how it made some students to involve themselves in various forms of examinational malpractices.
Definition of Concepts
For the purpose of clarity and clear understanding of some terms used in the study which seem too ambiguous and technical in the ways there were used. The following concepts are defined.
- Education: Education is defined in this study as a process of training and instruction especially of children and young people in schools, collages which is designed to teach them knowledge and skills.
- Students: It is a learner, somebody who attends an educational institution.
- Examination Malpractice: It is an act of violation of examinational rules and regulations committed without any defense and penalized with the stipulated law guiding it.
- Expulsion: It is an action of forcing somebody to leave a place or an institution.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The ban on the sale of handout by lecturers in Ebonyi State University and does not augur well to the students.
Many others and researchers widely believe that the ban on the sale of handout by lecturers in Ebonyi State University is at the benefit of the students without understanding the negative effect it has on the academic performances of the students and the lecturers as well.
On the part of the students, the ban has caused some students inability to access more information on educational materials, these is because the price for textbooks is always more expensive than handouts. Students through the purchase of handout at a lower price, students have genuine access to educational material at affordable rate, but now the prices given to some textbooks by the management and senate of Ebonyi State University are always on high price and it is linked to the ban on the sale of handout by the lecturers in Ebonyi State University. Also some lecturers do not devote much time to prepare their educational materials into textbooks instead they prepare them in the form of handout.
The sell of handouts is used in exchange to the exorbitant prices of textbooks and also provides a more efficient system to connect the students and lecturers together. Some lecturers have also lost their incentives to put their educational materials in the form of textbooks because some of them do complain of not making enough profit from their educational materials and they are not the ones to determine the prices of their textbooks.
Even some students does not buy textbooks any longer and does not even border themselves of buying any academic materials because they belief since it is not compulsory for them there is no need for them to buy them without knowing the effect it has on them in the present time and in the future time to come.
Some lecturers engage themselves in criminal offences by collecting and allowing their courses to be sorted by the students, this is because they believe since they cannot force the students to buy textbooks. It is better for them to allow students to come and sort their courses and it has a deleterious effect on the academic performance of students.
In summary, the ban on the sales of handout has limited the academic performances of students and has caused the unnecessary maltreating of students by some lecturers.
Review of Theories
The following theories are deemed very relevant to the understanding and explanation of the effect of the ban on sales of handouts by lecturers in Ebonyi State University.
- Herbert Spencer structural functionalism theory.
- Normative theory proposed by the duo of Proom and Yetton (1973).
- Max Weber structural Analysis of the society.
- Talcott Parson structural functionalism.
Herbert Spencer Structural Functionalism
The major concern of this theory was reflected by the fact that every social institution should be well analysed within the social matrix (social context) in which it is embedded. He further contended that every institution was the product of deliberate intentions and motivation of actors but it arose out the functional and structural necessities of the society, it was the conditional units imposed by the environment and not intentions of a particular social unit. So if we must to study a given social institution, we must also find it expedient to study its function or role it was sub-serve at that stage
This theory was proposed by the duo of Proome and Yetton (1973). Essentially the theory attempted to look at the process of decision making process in organizations and how this process makes a leader to be effective or otherwise. Decisions taken by leader have four reaching effects on their subordinate. This theory focused on the way leaders should believe to their subordinates when taking decisions. Specifically, it focused on how much participation they should conceded to their subordinates.
This theory is seeking to answer the question of the extent that leaders should allow their subordinates, cause to the conclusion that leaders often choose one out of five distend methods in taking decision. These five methods are autocratic 1, autocratic 2, consultative 1, consultative 2 and group decision; let us do a tabular presentation for easy understanding.
A1 (Autocratic):The leader solves problem or takes decision unilaterally by using available information.
A2 (Autocratic):The leader obtains necessary information from subordinate but them takes decision unilaterally
C1 (consultative):The leader decision unilaterally with subordinates one on one and them takes decision unilaterally.
C2 (Consultative): The leader shares problem with subordinates in group meeting and them takes decision unilaterally
G (Group):The leader shares the problem with the subordinate in a group meeting where decision are made by discussions and consensus
In sum, the normative theory focuses on decision making as a major determinant of effective leader the theory argues that different situation call for different styles of decision making (for example, autocratic, consultative and participative styles) by leader. Recent evidence also suggest that the personal characteristic of leaders are also important in knowing which of these styles is best in decision making process in any organization.
With the position of this theory we have to know the kind of method being used by the senate in bar the lectures to sales their handout to their students in Ebonyi State University. If leader or senate should have allowed their subordinates to cause to the conclusion ban on the sale of handout Lecturers in Ebonyi State University could have not be the answer.
Talcot parson structural functionalism theory
Talcot person published numerous articles and books and during the 1940s he became the dominant theorist in American sociology person (1951) began with the question of hour social order is possible he observed that social life is characterized by mutual advantage and peaceful cooperation rather them mutual hostility and destruction
Person, viewed society as a social system he argued that any social system has four basic functional prerequisites, adaptation goes attainment, integration and pattern maintenance theses can be seen as problem that society must solve, if it must survive.
The function of any part of social system is understood as its contribution toward meeting functional prerequisites. Solutions to the four survival problem must be institutionalised if society is to continue in existence in order wards solution must be organized in the form of ordered stable social institutions which persist through time. Also persons studies of organization the usefulness of persons work for the study or organization is that persons was of the opinion that an organization can be taken as a social system but that it actually differs from a other system as a result of the organization main focus to the achievement of specific objective which could be either to make a profit or to turn out graduates or even to fight external aggressors as is the cases of business organization Universities and Armies.
Max Weber and his Social Action Theory
Max Weber focused on the social structural analysis of society, which he devoted much attrition to the subjective meaning that individual action attached to their actions within any specific social historical context, for him man and his social action constitute the basic unit of the society
Max Weber sees social action carried out by an individual who attaches a subjective meaning to this as he called Verstehan which is a German word meaning understanding. For Weber only by careful understanding of the action of individual actions in the society and within a historical context can the social world be meaningful to human being max Weber distinguished two types of understanding
(a) Aktuelle understanding which direct observational understanding is.
(b) Erklarendes understanding which explanatory understanding, this understanding is attached to action by understanding the motive behind it.
With the position of this theory we have to understand the meaning and motive attached by the selling of handout by the Lectures in Ebonyi State University.
Similar study on the ban of sale of handouts by lecturers has been carried out by authors from structural functionalism theory of Herbert Spencer is believed according to the subject of discussion as the most appropriate theory to explain the effect of the ban on sale of handout by the lecturers in Ebonyi State University.
This theory maintained that social institutions should be well analysed within the social context in other words the selling of handout by the lecturers have to be analyzed and understand within the school context and the purpose it served, this is because the sale of handout is as a result of the institutional necessities of students and lecturers.
The following hypotheses are to guide this study.
- The ban on the sale of handout by lecturers is related to student’s poor academic performance.
- The ban on the sale of handout limit access to educational materials
- The ban on the sale of handout by lecturers is related to examination misconducts.
The design for this study is carefully fashioned to look into the affect of the are of sale of land out by the management of Ebonyi state university it’s causal variable, implication on the students and lecturers in Ebonyi state university
Scope of Study
Ebonyi State University is the area covered by the study; Ishieke Campus is one of the Campuses in Ebinyi State University.
Ishieke Campus comprises of Faculty of Education, Faculty of Art, Faculty of Management Sciences and faculty of Social Sciences. On Ishieke Campus, the ban of on the sale of handout by lecturers in Ebonyi State University has drastically reduced the academic performance of students and reduces student’s accessibility to educational materials.
THE STUDY AREA
The study area of this research work is Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The institution is located in the capital city of the State and comprises of four distinctive campuses. The Main campus, Ishieke campus, Presco Campus and the College of Agriculture Campus (CAS). It was established following the creation of the State in October 1, 1996 by the Federal Military Government and serves as the only degree awarding institution in the State, except for the recent Federal University Ndufu – Alike Ikwo, which is yet to start functioning in its full capacity.
The ethos of the University is Development and Excellent. This explains the puzzles on how the University has graduated thousands of Alumni who are leaders in Government, education, business, technical field and the precisions and still counting. The study area will examine the effect of the banned of sale of handout, its causes, implications and perceptions.
The target population of this study comprises both the male and female students in Ishieke Campus in Ebonyi State University.
There is estimate of (10,000) ten thousand students in Ishieke Campus in Ebonyi State University, Estimate of six hundred females (600) and four hundred males (400).
There estimated of (10,000) ten thousand students in Ishieke Campus in Ebonyi State University.
The sample size of this study is ten thousand (10,000) comprising male and female students.
Males Students = 4000
Female Students = 6000
Total = 10,000
The study used a sample random sampling procedure to select various categories of male and female students.
Instrument for Data Collection
These are devices used in measuring and recording data.
Different techniques were employed by the researcher in the course of collecting data for this study. These include interview, questionnaire and books.
The information collected from respondent deals with their socio-demographic characteristics such as Age, Sex, Marital Status, and Educational Qualification.
The researcher made use of observation as a means of gathering information for this study.
Method of Data Collection
The researcher used questionnaire which was distributed to the respondents each of the questionnaire was attached with a letter stating clearly the objective of the study.
The copies of the various questionnaire we collected by the researcher immediately after completion. This represents the primary source of data collection, information were also gathered through oral interview
Data collected through primary sources were presented in a tabular form using frequency and simple percentage to make room for easy calculation and concise integration.
Information gathered through oral interview was analysis effort was made to link up quantitative data (questionnaire with qualitative data interview) generated.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter presents an analysis of the data obtained from the research
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS
Socio-Demographic data of respondents.
TABLE I: Sex Demographic of Respondents
The above table shows that 120 (40%) of the respondents are male while 180 (60%) of the respondent are female, thus, the total respondents are 300.
TABLE 2: Age Distribution of Respondents
|Age18-25 years26-35 years
The above table shows that 266 (86.7%) of the respondents fall within the age range of 18-25 years while 34 (13.3%) of the respondents fall within age range of 26-30years.
TABLE 3: Marital Status of Respondents
The above table shows that respondents with single status has the highest percentage, this was reflected in the 36.67% of the respondents representing 80 frequency of the respondents who are married, while 200 frequency of the respondents which corresponds with 66.60% of the total respondents are single, whereas, a minute fringe of 20 respondents which occupies 6.67% or 20 frequency are divorced.
TABLE 4: Respondents Religion
The above table shows that 200 (66.60%) of the respondents are Christians, 20 (6.67%) are Islamic, while Traditional religion scored 36.67% representing 80 respondents. This shows that majority of the respondents are Christians.
TABLE 5: The Respondents extent which the ban on the sale of handout affected the respondents?
The above table shows that majority of the respondent opted that the ban on the sale of handout affects the students negatively. This found expression on 100 (33.3%) of the respondents who firmed that the ban has positive effect on the students. However, 180 (60%) of the respondent believed that the ban has tumulus negative effects on the students, whereas, a minute fringe of 20 respondents which corresponds with 6.7% of the study respondent were neutral as to whether it affects the students negatively or positively.
TABLE 6: The extent in which Respondents have access to educational materials.
|RespondentsEasily accessiblePoor access
The table above shows that the respondents who said that they have poor access to educational material are 160 (53.3%), whereas, 140 (46.7%) of the respondents have poor access to educational materials. Thus, the majority of the respondents are believed to have limited access to educational materials.
TABLE 7: The causes of the ban on the sale of handout
|RespondentsExtortion of studentsIllegality on handout sells by lecturers
The above table shows that the respondents 130 (43.3%) respondents believes that extortion of students by lecturers accounts for the ban on the sales of handout in Ebonyi State University, whereas, 170 (56.7%) which represents a greater number of the study respondents believes that illegality on the sales of handout by lecturers is the prominent cause of the ban.
TABLE 8: Whether the University management considers the interest of the students
Table 8 above shows that majority of the respondents said that University management did not consider the interest of the students. This found expression on 145 (48.3%) of the respondents who believed that the university considered the management the interest of the students before the ban, this was against 155 (51.7%) of the total study respondents who believed that the University management never considered the interest of the students before the ban.
TABLE 9: Whether the ban serve the interest of the students
Table nine above shows that (49.3%) of the respondents believe that the ban serves the interest of the students while other (50.7%) of the respondents did not believe that the ban is on the interest of the students. this shows that the majority of the students does not believe the ban to be on the interest of the students.
TABLE 10: Whether the ban aggravate ill treatment of the students by lecturers
Table 10 above show that (60%) of the respondents said that the ban on the sale of handouts aggravate or increase ill treatment of students by the lecturers while other (40%) did not agree that the ban aggravate ill treatment of students by the lecturers. This shows that the majority of the students believe that the ban leads to ill treatment of students by the lecturers.
TABLE 11: The reaction of students on the ban on the sale of handouts.
Table11 above shows that 50% of the respondents shows rejection of the ban on the sale of handouts, 46.7% of the students accommodate the ban on the sale of handouts why the remaining 33% of the students support the ban on the sale of handouts this shows that the percentage of the respondents who rejects ban are higher.
TABLE 12: Whether the ban leads to poor academic performances of the students.
Table 12 above shows that 55% 0f the respondents said that the ban on the sale of handouts leads to poor academic performances of students, why the remaining 45% does not believe that the ban on the sale of handouts leads to poor academic performances of students. This shows that the percentage of the respondents who said that the ban on the sale of handout leads to poor academic performances of the students is higher.
TABLE 13: Whether the ban on the sale of handouts affects the school entirely.
Table 13 above shows that 53.3% of the respondents said that the ban on the sale of handouts affect the school entirely while the remaining 46.7% do not believe that the ban on the sale of handouts affect the entire school. This shows that the respondents who said that the ban on the sale of handout affect the school entirely are higher.
TABLE 14: Whether respondents are computer literate?
Table 14 above shows that 40% of the respondents are computer literate while the remaining 60% of the respondents are not computer literate. This shows that the numbers of respondents who are not computer literate are high.
4.3 Discussion of Findings
From the various data available to the research, it has been observed that issues concerning the ban on sale of handout deserve much attention; this is because the entire school will find it difficult to improve qualitative and quantitative educational performance of the students in the presence of the ban on the sale of handouts.
The researcher has discovered from the response of respondents that the ban on the sale of handout is lifted, based on what University management thought is affecting the students, is not what is actually affecting them.
The researcher has also discovered that the majority of the respondents are not computer literate which made it difficult for them to source information from computer and information technology systems and the price of textbooks which is always on the higher price will made it difficult for some or majority of the students to afford. The researcher also fined out that the ban on the sale of handout have affected the students negatively and the students are begging for the school management to do something on time for the benefit of the students.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY OF FINDING
This research work attempted to have in sight knowledge into effect of the ban of sale of handout with focused in Ishieke Campus, Ebonyi State University. A lot of the effects on the ban of sale of handout haven been seen to include poor academic performances of the students and poor access to educational materials, ill-treatment of the students by the lecturers.
The research was questionnaire method to source information from the respondents the purpose of this work is to establish the nature and extent of which the ban on the sale of handout has affected the students and possible measures to correct the menace.
The importance attached to this study is basically of two kinds, the ban on the sale of handout the practical and theoretical importance. The practical importance of this study is to educate the school management on the effective measures to make policies and laws that will positive effect on the life of students.
The topic of this research is the effect of the ban on the sale of handout. A study of Ishieke Campus, Ebonyi State University. The research work is divided into five chapter, by chapter one the introductory and background of the work.
This research work was carried out under the following headings:
Background of the study, Statement of research problem, research questions, objective of the study, significance of the study and definition of concepts. In this chapter, broad description of subject matter was carried out and if contains the research for the investigation research proposal and uses or phenomena intended to be tackled. This chapter also contain the impact in the chapter significance was defined to ensure clarity and precision.
In chapter two (literature Review through examination of past research and theories related to the topic of under the following sub headings:
Review of related theories, theoretical frame work and hypothesis chapter thrice (Research Methodology).
In this chapter the method used in this research was specified for easy verification and explanation of the experiment by any interested areas under the following subheading.
Scope of the study, study population, study Area, sample size, sample procedure, instrument of collection and data analysis. The questionnaire was used to collect data in this chapter the sampling size are 300 comprising male and female respondents.
Chapter four (presentation and analysis of data in this chapter various data collected from the respondent were presented and analysis using frequency tables and simple percentage).
In chapter five summaries of research findings, conclusion and recommendation was carried out and finally the work ended with references and appendix
This study cannot be said to be complex without some meaningful recommendations based on the findings to address the problems encountered as a result of the ban on the sale of handout. Thus the following plausible recommendation are made
- The government should allocate sufficient funds to various tertiary institutions and colleges to provide good quality educational materials.
- The information and computer technology systems of the school should be equipped and made accessible.
- The school library should be equipped and made accessible to students.
- There should be proper enlightenment of student on the danger on involving anti-social group.
- The library environments should be made conducive and silence for study.
- The school management should reinstate the sale of handout by the lecturers to hasten quick learning process