The Effectiveness Of Public Relations Practice In The Oil Sector


The only thing on Earth that remains unchanged is change itself. The world is dynamic every economic activities is dynamic and business organization which operates in an environment is dynamic also. Coming to these reasons, modern public relations practice demands a constant evaluation of organization public relations practices so as to determine which area would need an improvement to match nature of the environment.

The Chief Executives of an organization should therefore need a periodic review of their policies and quality of their products and services as regards their effectiveness and degree of responsibility, the periodic evaluation will in no small measure help an organization make some necessary adjustment in the public’s goodwill and give them competitive edge over their rivals.

The evaluation of organization public relations practices is very much needed now that a lot of proliferation of business organization regarding competition for market share, public image and acceptance for an organization to survive in the competitive business world, should try as much as possible to satisfy the needs of their potential customers since the actions may definitely affect the organization either ways negative or positive.

There is need for organization to have a constant appraisal of their management practices, quality of products and services, policies with aim to pay on particular attention on the good and aspects that will alienate the organization public image.


Because of some organization and misconception it portage false introduction, a call was made. Therefore to have an open door discussion or seminar on the subject matter.

This will help clear some doubts on what is actually a public relation practices.

It is as a result of this misconception that about thirty national and regional public relation associations met in Mexico City and came with the following definition.

Public relation is the act and science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization, leadership and implementing planned programme of action which will serve both an organizations and public interests”.

This definition actually points out that public relations has to do with the process of establishing and maintaining cordial relationship between and organization and its public so as to help the organization to achieve its objective.

Sam Black (2004: 3) quoting the institute of public relations (IPR) in the United Kingdom.

“Public relations is the sustained and deliberation efforts to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public. “the editors of relation as a Philosophy and function of management that evaluate public attitudes, identities its policies of an individual or firm with public interest and execute programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptances.

Jefkins (2000:20) has that public relations consists of all forms of planned communication outward, between a firm and its public for purpose of achieving specific goods concerning mutual understanding:. Jefkins emphasized planned communication with specific public of any organization to achieve mutual understanding with them.

This course is imperative for the survival progress of our company which includes the attainment of its goal. Sam Black equally emphasized communication (which includes public relations as the establishment of two way communication to resolve certain conflicts of interest seeking an atmosphere of mutual understanding. Interest and the establishment of understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information”. There are some other brief definition o public relations according to Cutlip and Centre (2000:4) such definition includes

  • Is a planned and sustained programme conducted by an organization management
  • Deal with the reactions between organization and its various constituent publics
  • Monitors awareness, opinion attitude and behaviour inside and outside the organization.
  • Analyzes the impact of organizational policies, procedures and actions on various publics.
  • Establishes and maintain two-way communication between the organization and its environment.
  • Consents management on its establishment of were policies, procedures and actions that are mutually beneficial to the organization and its publics.

Besides, the public relations society of American (PRSA: 2001) maintained that as a management function public relations include the following:

  • Anticipating, analyzing and interpreting public opinion attitudes issues which might impact, for good or ill the operation and plans of the company.
  • Counseling management at all levels in the organization with regards to policy decision, courses of action and communication, taking into consideration their public interest and the organization social responsibilities.
  • Planning and implementing the organization efforts to influence or change public policy.
  • Setting objectives, planning, budgeting, recruiting, managing the resources required to perform all the above.
  • Examples of the knowledge that may be required in the professional practice of public relations include communication art, psychology, social psychology, sociology, political science, economics and the principles of management and ethics technical knowledge and skills are returned for opinion research public issues analysis, media relations, direct media, institutional advertising, publication, film,/video production, special events, speeches and presentation.

To enhance and regularize the public relations practice in Nigeria, the Nigeria Institute of Public Relations (NIPR) decree was promulgated on the first of June, 1990 by then.

President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Gen Ibrahim Babangida.

There are certain important portions of this Decree such as the establishment of a corporate body to be known as Nigeria Institute of Public Relations (NIPR) that is changed the responsibilities as

  • Determine what standard of knowledge and person seeking to become registered members of the public relations profession and reviewing standards from time to time as situation may call for.
  • Adult members to the institute in different categories as follows, members and association, and enroll them as public relation practitioners.
  • Proffer pundits of this decree indicate that the Nigerian Government is beginning to give an attention to the practice of public relations in the country, for instance:

Lagos State Government has already carved out from the Ministry of information a department of Public Relations and the press as a result of the 1988 Civil Service Reform.

Bernstain (2002:10 says corporate identity is planned assembly through which the public can distinguish one company from the other, can be used to recognize and symbolize.

Olins (2002:12) categorize from major areas of activities of corporate identity. These are product/service, environment, information and behaviour, while Rose concludes “that control of employees communication is the most constant argument between the two function.

While trying to understand what actually is the public relation is:

Rose pointed out, that the Single purpose of public relations function should geared towards helping the organization to develop and maintain a social environment. When it expand very well, Public relations as really based on actual performance and behaviour as well as what the “PR does and says”.

Burton (2005:4) has almost a different view, he was looking at public relations from the organizational perspective establish and maintain a good name for its products and services through professional communication techniques and of course prospect a goof image of the company itself.

It should be noted that lack of an efficient and effective two ways communication has an adverse effect on the organization. The reason is that it created a loophole for misunderstanding and disharmony and unnecessary tension between the organization and its internal and external publics.

This could lead to voluntary resignation of experience and key personnel of the organization. The resultant effect is not only tarnishing the public image but ruin its entire organizational activities. Whereas in the external publics, the inability of the organization to communicate properly its policies and programmes which is a task or part of their ethics and which the public suppose to know bridge about loss of confidence, credibility and a total ruin of the entire company.

Further, Lesley (2009:6) says “every one influenced by reputation in choosing everything he brings and in “every association he makes whether sum or energy wheels, prestige will sell goods, attract dealers back up sales effort”.

It should be noted when an organization neglects the workers which constitutes the internal public, which it the workers in employees of an organization are properly not cared for, that is also some way of killing the corporate image of an organization.

The United States Newman (2004:10) in his own research in employee attitude state that “when people get a lot of satisfaction out of their works, they neglects their feeling to outsiders and they are more effective in their job as well: he continued after carrying out a post modern examination of events and personalities in the 12 day transit strike that halted business and subway services in the New York. Believed that “Lack of communication caused the strike and extended its duration.

A warning is that for organization to achieve the purpose of creating the public relations unit al heads should be on desk. So long the house organs is making it public. The activities of management should be as well not forget to comment the effort of Junior staff since the top management cannot do it all in isolation.

Nnaemeka diagnosed the public relation for local Government in Nigeria (2000:9), he pointed out that outcomes of public relation effort are influenced by the social structure” continued that whatever impression conception. One in a society is having about the structure in their operating environment we normally constituted for them in its process of social interaction.


Pride and Ferrel (2001:8) had the view that, marketing consist of individual and organizational activities which facilitate and expatiate satisfying exchange relationship in a cleansing environment through the creation, distribution, promotion and policy of goods and services.

According to Hair, Bush and Ortinau (2000), marketing is the process of planning and executing the policy, promotion and distribution of products, services and ideas    in order to create exchange that satisfy the firm and its customers.

Companies strive to build up a long lasting relationship with the individual customer. Companies ensure that customers satisfaction is the watch word since customers are always regarded is a king”

Obiesie (2003:151-152) defined public relations as a planned and sustained effort by an organization to create and maintain favourable relationship between the organization and its publics.

The communication arm of public relations is called publicity. It is the function of publicity to ensure that the good deeds of the company through its publics relations are make known to other groups since the benefiting public is already aware and enjoying the services provided.

Public relation encompass all aspect of the operation of an entity, be it individual or corporate body. It has to do with what the entity does and what it says, sporting activity like track and field events, the company’s image its equally promoted. To add credibility to advertisement, public relation supports marketing by getting endorsement from the media which mentions product as news.

For any organization to achieve its marketing objectives, public relations practitioners has role to play.

Confield (2008:28) writes that “public relations techniques are being used to build good reputation for products and services in the same way they had been used in shareholder community and employee relations in building a good reputation for the organization.

Public relation practitioners are into advertising, promotion, integrated marketing, communication and establishment of public goods with an organization. Public relation practitioner should time without member appraise their organization overall corporate image through public opinion survey so that they can achieve management normally to ensure their survival and continued success in business operations.

Jefkins (2007:16) stated that public  relations educated but not persuade, if  presents facts on that people seems to like those things they know and understand well public relation simply aids the art of selling advertising and mechanizing by breaking the barriers of ignorance.


        The under listed are some of the roles public relation executive play in the business outfit. Public relation executive has to:

  1. Identify the target audience
  2. Create awareness of a new product among distributors and encourage them to stock the product.
  3. Explain the unique selling proposition of a new product to the distributors
  4. Prepare product that off help promote sales through the distributors.
  5. Sustain consumer awareness of a new product and explain its use through media relation, exhibitions and sponsorship.
  6. Educate salesmen on how to convince the target audience to buy the product and to answer their enquiries.
  7. Generate public for launching the product through bill boards, post bills.
  8. Explain new uses for the product so that the product will last.
  9. Maintain and re-enforce cooperate reputation and brand reputation.

Let us just look as this term the shortest angle educating consumers, understanding consumer needs and persuading distributors/agents. Consume public relations means business promotion. This means profit making through  increase sales in commercial oriental company.


  1. Investor Relations

investor relations which is known as financial  relations is a specialized area of public companies like African Petroleum Plc. We should not forget the saying that “so also it is said the same” money is the life wire of any business venture, a special note the is that the future of any business venture or organization depend largely upon the public to lose judgment will equally depend upon how much they know about a company achievement, resources and proposed development. A well promising investors relation will help to protect against any industrial attacks and take over.

Public relations should be used to ensure that the owners of the business (i.e shareholders) receive financial information as at when due, fairly and quickly in order to decide whether to buy. Some investors related to each other in discharge of their legitimate duties, we must have to plan very well for financial communication programme will not doubt boost company ego and reputation and enhances the market popularity of the company’s shares.

The communication tools like annual and quarterly reports are equally important, therefore the organization must communicate directly with investors, intermediaries securities analysis, broker, banks, funds managers, stock exchange through the agreed financial media.

  1. 2. Media Relations

        The backbone of public relations practitioner journalist relationship is mutual trust and mutual advantage.

1.The public relations executive should be plain and simple to the journalist.

  1. He should consider the needs of media personal when planning for media events, for instance annual general meeting, anniversaries etc.
  2. He should treat media personnel as partners in progress
  3. He should provide media personnel with relevant stories and pictures.
  4. He should organize press conference, facilities visit at the time most appropriate.
  5. He should prevent any situation capable of producing bad news, because media personnel cannot publish a damaging story so long they have fact.
  6. 3. Employee Relations

        The practitioner should endeavor to build employee confidence and trust by effective employee communication media, names, letter, building, printed speeches.

  1. Improved employee efficiently by recommending staff for one on the training programme.
  2. Be aware that employee communication ensure captivity of work without strike, participation and commitment, it reduces absenteeism and staff turnover.
  3. Employee know through action and by written communication that they are the most important resources.


        As we know that corporate identity appears on every activity the company undertake, It is necessary therefore to print company’s logo on all items of stationeries, gift item, calendars, diaries and car. Even on public function which the organization banners the organization logo should properly printed there.

Nwosu (2006:4), public relation serves as veritable information and communication bridge between thee organization and its various internal and external publics. Public relations actually ensures a steady two way communication and feedback between offices performs counseling function in any organization as regards advertising in the management on the importance of such issues as good community visit and sitting arrangement which are protocol function. This unit determines the protocol list of recognition in all speeches in the organization.

Public relations also involves in community relations by ensuring that the organization and its staff relate well with the members of the community in which it operates. It involves building mutual understanding between the organization and its community neighbors by identifying with the joys and problems of the community neighbors where it exist. It should be understood that community relations functions and social responsibility function of modern public relations are related. Public relations combine duties, like advising management of an organization as well as ensuring that the organization is both responsible and responsible “corporate citizen”. This involves carrying campaign on environmental protection, contributing to rural and national development, promoting entrepreneurship, contributing to education, promoting arts and culture.

The employee relation function is one other vital function of modern public relations. This involves ensuring two way flow of communication between the management and the employees in any organization working with the industrial relations and personal department so as factor industrial harmony in the company. This will be achieved by ensuring good employees motivation practices as collective bargaining.

Modern public relations is also involve in marketing support function. This could   come by effective customer relations and understanding thereby helping to promote sales as one of the promotional tools in marketing.

Public relations is sometimes enormously and myopically seen as nothing but a part of the promotional aspect of marketing.

It is a district management functions which touches on every aspect of the organization existence and corporate and complements the other management functions like production, personal, industrial relations.

Another important function, it helps to ensure a healthier shareholder relation, financial information management legal and stock exchange information management, financial institutions like  (banks) relations and financial advisory functions.
modern publics relations cannot work in isolation of research function” since it centers in  other functions and very crucial aspect. This involves collecting and analyzing data on economic, political, social and other trends that are relevant to an organizations existence, growth and survival and as well drawing conclusion from them and appropriate recommendation to or forecast for management.

One other name for trends analysis is environment scanning. Communication and media audits, as well as image research function in public relations.

Further, we have the international public relations (IPR) as deliberately planned, systematic and research based activities of an organization, individual, marketers or nation which are aimed at building and sustaining, sound, productive mutual relations with international public such as customers, diplomats, governments business organizations and others.

Corporate Social Responsibility Programme

  1. Recommend corporate donations and sponsorship of events at appropriate times.
  2. Recommend to management to be good example to other organization.
  3. To advise the management on what they should be better the live of the community in which they operate.
  4. To ensure that management projects their corporate character and citizenship most especially in banks that declare reasonable profits.
  5. Acquaint itself with the community in which it operates which will help the company know the probe in the community to know where to render help.

Corporate Advertisement

Corporate advertising help to publicize organization it is used for the following

  1. Community relations is simply making life meaningful to thee people in the locality where they operate
  2. Promotion of contests and scholarship awards.
  3. Presentation of records of accomplishment.
  4. Public service advertisement.

 Customer’s Education Programmes

Public relations engage in customer’s education like

  1. Radio and television interview
  2. Video production and play back of company service and the processes involved in marketing of oil.
  3. Customers forums are highly recommended to present a picture of well managed organization to the public.


        Public relations is the art and science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequence, counseling organization, leadership and implementing planned programme of action which will serve both an organization and public interest.

This definition actually points out that public relations has to do with the process of establishing and maintaining cordial relationship between an organization and its publics so as to help the organization to achieve its objectives.

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