Effective Motivational Programmes and Productivity in Government Parastatals



Imo State is one of the states in Nigeria which came unit full independent administration   on the 15 March 1976. it is one of seven states created during the general  Murtala/Obasanjo military regime.

For administrative convinced provision of  infrastructures  adequate services and increased development the state operates through various organs in order it achieve these policies and objective which is important to the general well being of the citizen of he state. Among these organs are the ministries and  the parastatals.

The Imo State health management board is one of numerous parastatals establishments by the state to undertake the function of providing adequate health service   to the state it was established in 1978 two year after the creation of the state under a  government edit., 1977 and  shall be deemed is have come in to effect on the 1st day of October 1977 the edit applies to government hospital associated institutions primary and comprehensive  health centers it was established in edit No I of 1978 it was originally known as Imo State Hospital management board but with the present federal medical center. It is known as Imo State health management board. It was reviewed  in 1986.

The health management boards in charged with the responsibility of providing and managing affectively the health cares service of the states just like public utilities board takes of electricity and water supply.

The health management boards is an adjustment the  state ministry of health and enjoys the state of autonomy. It responsibility for running the fourteen (14) designated designated hospital and one dental center.

These health institutions are located among three (3) zones in Imo State namely Owwrri Orlu and Okigwe the health manageemnt  board with about one thousand four hundred and eighty (1,488) staffs consisting of various professions that can be found in a hospital organization is divided into eight (8) division for effective specialized services. These division are as follow:

1.                 Administrative  division

2.                 Medical service

3.                 Nursing

4.                 Pharmaceutical

5.                 Medical laboratory

6.                 Radiological (x-ray)

7.                 Accounts

8.                 Catering/ dietetic secretariat complex Owerri.

The    organizational structure of the board downs the commission for health as the overall  head. But as an autonomous institution the board has the sole authoritative organ. The board member are the sole decision maker and their decision must be in conformity with the health policies of the government.

Next in the hierarchy is the chief executive office who is the administrative head of the board. Each of the functional division enumerated above is headed by specialist in the field.

Further general hospital in the zones are headed by either chief consultant of different designation or chief/ senior medical officers.  Within these different hospital the above mentioned division exist which are responsibility to there respective division in the head quarters.

From the briefing above it is easy to observer that health management board is a complex unit due to its coverage and importance to the state heath services. The  fourteen (14) hospital are located in the following areas:

  1. Okigwe 6 Aboh Mbaise 11Ogwa
  2. Oguta 7 Ahiazu Mabise 12 Egbema
  3. New Owerri 8 Umuokanne 13 Isunjaba
  4. Okigwe Road Sectariat 9 Elmuneke-Ngor
  5. Orlu 10 Mbiari

The dynamic of both the internal and  external organizational environment and its invested influences on the specific individual worker in the work place in both economic and social life necessitates continuity in the   study of human resources planning.

You can agree with me that no organization is known to achieve it desired objectives profitability and growth on efficiency that didn’t give the human resources of the organization the priority it deserved. He recognition of employees ability requirement of jobs for achieving personal human resources objective especially to increase employees performance is very important. This it becomes inevitable for managers to under standard that employees’ abilities alone are insufficient in obtaining human resources objective. Not only must employees have the ability to obtain outcomes but also they must be willing to expand the necessary effort to achieve them.

Therefore the willingness to work for outcomes has to  do with employee’s motivation and in understanding motivation recognition must be give to too basic questions that is “what energized employees in the work environment” and what environment that stimulates them to action?”

In the words of Mathias and Jackson “motivation is concerned with the “WHY” rather than the “HOW” or “WHAT” of human behaviours.

Motivation attempts to account for the “drivers” or “want” inside an individual rather than describing the individuals action  or behaviour. A motive tend to create cause for someone to act in a certain or may develop a propensity for specific behaviour and this urge for action can be touched off by external stimuli in the from of inducement or it can be internally generated in individual physiological process in the from of drives impulses or intention.

Perhaps many managers in organizations have been worrying about has they with motivate their workers towards increasing productivity. Many have failed may have done their best and in the event of non-cognizance of the importance of motivation in work place will ultimately lead to non-achievement of organizational goals.

Therefore the question seems “how can a manager motivate his workers?” answer rouging from coercion to economic rewards to physiological need reward have been offered but jet immersing abseutism continues to dominates many work organization today.

This aspect of motivation study gives rise to what is called the content theory of motivation”.

Deductively one cannot help facing the reality of the magnitude of importance which motivation occupy in an organization primary as a means of achieving an increase in productivity and the ultimate achievement of the organizational gools.

A motivated workers is an happy workers and just as individuals are different from each other  and with the difference extending to their economic and social needs of become important to understand that what really motivate an individual might not have the advantage on a general application. The management  therefore faces a great problem which requires specialty skill knowledge and a very good understanding of group and individual behaviours for an adequate and acceptable degree of solution to be developed fro solving the motivational problems in the work place.



The word motivation is derived from the  word “ movers” which means to move today, the terms means a lot more then this “A reflection  of a person’s desire to fulfill certain needs” while another person seen it in the perceptively that “it has to do with forces that maintain and after the direction quality and intensity of behaviour” the study of motivation has to do with the analysis of various factors which entities and direct an individuals action motivation therefore is generalized reference to the operation within the organism of invigoration and goal seeking behaviour. People join organization to satisfy certain need and the continued existence of an organizaiton depends on its ability motivate so as to achieve individual and organizational goals.

Motivation and productivity are likely to be of more concern and time consuming problem for the mangers. Since it is directly related to the effectiveness and success of an individual and the organizational goal.

Ordinarily people will not learn very much about anything unless they were motivated to do so that is unless they were provided with adequate incentives these  especially in industrial are usually  considered as either financial or non-financial the environment in which people live and its changing nature the cultural pattern of life their own particular abilities skill and habits as well as the zeal and confidence to achieve an already set respective goals contribute much to the complexities encountered in understanding he various ways in which acting in a particular clear meaning of  motivation one will have is consider virtually all the aspect of human behaviour in relation to work and benefits which in turn is tied is various human needs desired to satisfy them  and to what extent they have been satisfied. All these will ultimately very in the degree at which individuals will want to expand their energy in order to obtain such satisfaction


Virtually the definitions given by each expert in the issue will definitely differ in the area of semiotics but will ultimately reflect the same meaning under this circumstance.  This study will look into some of the definition given by various experts in the   field as to what it is intended to reflect.

“motivation is derived form the word motive” and it is an emotional or desired forces operating one ones will and causing that person to act” this definition that is conception in  nature tries to act in a particular way for one reason or the other which must be of great importance to him.

Another definition gave a broad explanation of the term motive this as an internal factors that arouses directs and integrates a persons behaviours” it is not observed directly out interfered from his behaviour or simply assumed to exist in order to explain his behaviour.

Motivation is distinguished from all other factors that also influence behaviour such as the past experience of the person his physical capabilities he finds himself although these factors can still influence his motivation.

It is comprehensible that these definition is substantially understandable in that it has considered various other factors that could affect an individual in the workplace as well as the organization itself.

Another stable definition of motivation is that given by the international dictionary of business this,” processes or factors that cause people to act or behave in a certain ways. To motivate is to induce someone units action” generally we all known that everyone has a certain capability to work or a potential level of proficiency which he is capable of a achieving the extent to which he approached that level depends on his needs and the extent to which he work situation is able to satisfy these. This it become important to observe that  motivation could be termed as subjective and it occurrence and the degree depends on each individual and his economic needs and social needs. Virtually these few definitions tends to point towards a common view attest for now. May be somebody could coming tomorrow with a better explanation and that is the essence of continuity in educational research.


Any realistic individual or manager in an organization cannot help believing or accepting the fact that the achieving of  the goads and the objectives of such organization will only be a pipe dream if workers are not taken good care of the failure will be complete  and  other resources such as finance material capital investments and good will result to an incalculable loss to both the owners and the society in general if such important issue as to how to motivate the workers in the organization is ignored. Even in this generation of computer  eraze it is human beings that “command” and operate computers. Therefore the importance of human labour in an organization becomes inevitable and   subsequently  motivation of the worker becomes a condito-since qua-non to harnessing effectively the human resources aspect of production factors. The extensive studies reputable scholars like Mc Grego Maslous herzberg Ethoumagu and Mavy other have carried out on the complex issue of motivation in the workplace have established enough reason why much consideration must be given from time to time by practicing managers in an organization to motivation as it has become one of their sub-functions.  Must managers will agree with the statement make above.

The success of any organization is determined by the efforts of the people in it and mangers often say that problem relating to employee’s       behaviour are most perplexing.  Nothing works more then  motivation therefore we say the “motivation is the key to success”

Parastatals other government co-operation  and even the private ones have been identified as being the base of government expenditure. These enterprise especially the  government owned have bagged gold medial in inefficiency and ineffectiveness due to various factor which include mismanagement lackadaisical attitude of the workers due to the show mobility of the management to motivate them towards greater productivity.  The managers competence in carrying out his function effectively will definitely affect the attitude to work of his subordinates as  long as if has a component bearing on motivation.



The study of the theories of motivation on this work is done in two classes

  1. The content theories
  2. The process theories


In this version of studying motivational theories emphasis are going to be concentrated on the individual contributions to the study of motivation and  what they thinks uniquely as the reasons why people are motivated to do certain  things or put-up behaviours the way they do and it importance in contributing to increase productivity.

Among various other theories this work will examine the  studies of the following.

  1. Douglas Mc Gregor’s theories X and y
  2. Abraham H Maslous’s need of hierarch theories
  3. Fredrick herzberg’s two factor theory
  4. The macllans’ need theory of motivation
  5. Elton human relations theory of motivation
  6. B Alder Fod Esg theory of motivation
  7. Equity theory
  8. Other motivation factor.

Mc Gregor was one of the earliest profounder of motivational theory Hc proposed that managers usually sesame the employees are   motivated by one or two ways. The traditional   way which is referred to as theory X that suggests that managers assume that they must were control them.  The opposite of Mc Gregors theory X he  called theory Y which is assumed was a reasonable alternative to theory X. According to Mc Gregors theory X which enervates that;

  1. The average human being has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if he can
  2. Because of this human characteristics of dislike of work most people must be coerced controlled directed threatened with punishments to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of organizational objective.
  3. The average human being prefers to be directed wishes to avoid responsibility and has relatively ambition and above all security.

Conversely Mc Gregor observed also a situation that is supposed is be opposite in nature with theory x and this in called theory y this theory he states this;

  1. The desired of a human to expand physical and mental effort in work which is as natural as play or rest.
  2. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means of bringing about effort towards organizational objectives men will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which he is committed.
  3. Commitment to objective is a function of to the rewards associated with their achievements.
  4. The average human being leans under proper condition with only to accept but also to seek responsibility
  5. The capacity to exercise high degree of imagination or organizational problem.
  6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life the intellectual potentials of the average human being are only partially utilized.


In  analysis Mc Gregors theory seem to center on human behavior relative to his of mental  and inmate abilities with regard to his desire to do work.



The hierarchy of need theory was developed by Abraham Maslowin 1943. though man is in state of want all the time but the satisfaction of the physiological drive is essential to the maintenance of life and hence Maslow described them as proponent for   the motivation of behavior and further observed that as these basic needs are satisfied new need emerge to motivate behavior.

Maslow has postulated that everyone has five (5) basic need arranged in ascending hierarchical  order this for the purpose of discussion of these compacts of this theory the research has decided to discusses the components of this hierarchy of need in descending order.



  1. Physiological needs
  2. Safety needs
  3. Social needs
  4. Esteem needs
  5. Self actualization need.
  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS: According to munnet al “ when an organizaiton has been deprived of such basic necessities of life such as food water and sleep it develops needs which are the biochemical requirements of the  body simply stated physiological needs of the  body are those needs for foods shelter and water. They are parts of a human’s strong drive towards self- preservation
  7. b. SAFETY NEEDS: These needs includes the desire for security protection freedom from danger. On a wider perspective there are two (2) types of safety needs. These are the needs which we are concerned about but people have the basic needs to meet their own expectations of an acceptable standards of living.  Once the reach this level they want the assurance that they will remain and enjoy security over employment cassation anxiety over loss of income due to old age family sufficiency and so on.
  8. SOCIAL NEEDS: This involves desire for having funds company and family identification with a group it  also involves affiliation and friendship. People need to feel that they belong and that they are accepted and as important as any other member of the group and also to extent an influences on and within the group.
  9. ESTEEM NEEDS: This involves the desire for respect confidence and admiration. This is level when people strive for such attributes like states recognitions and   prestige. People need to feel that the are important and that what they are doing means something and that their contributions are highly required.
  10. SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED: According to Baller of the highest level is the desire to utilize one personal capacity to develop ones potentials to the fillest and to engage in activities to which one is well suited such factor as a feeling of job importance accomplishment individual performance and achievement challenging work and growth opportunities are all included here self actualization on  this aspect appears to means striving for instead of attainment of goals further in this issue Feldman observed that self actualization need s are unique in that once activated they can never be  fully satisfied fulfilled. The more fulfilled the stronger because they.


The two factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg was developed in 1950 and early 1960’s on motivation.  his  findings lead to a general theory that two sets of complimentary factors can be distinguished.  Firstly the motivators or satisfiers which create job interest and encourage the application of willing effort to jbo tasks.

Secondary the dissatisfied or hygienic factors which are know as maintenance factors associated with environment in which the work is carried out. For  most individual the greatest satisfaction and the strongest motivation are derived from achievement responsibility growth advancement work itself and earned recognition. People like this when Herberg term motivation seeker are motivated primary by the nature of the task and have high tolerance for poor environment factors. White maintenances seeker on the other hand are motivated primary by the nature of their environment and tend to avoid motivation opportunities. They tend to be satisfied with maintenance  factors surrounding the job such as pay supplementary benefits and   supervision working condition states job security company policy and administration as  well as relationship with fellow employee.

On   general analysis Herzberg two factor theory tends to reveal that the maintenance factor which eh called. Hygienic or dissatisfactory are those factors when provided will not enrage the worker neither will they motivate him unit higher productivity but will keep them on a mental position . the motivators which he called the satisfiers are  those opportunities when provided will tend to motivate the worker   greater productivity

According to Koontz Herberg’s research  has not gone unchallenged. Some question in Herzberg’s method alleged that his questioning method prejudiced his results.

Furthermore Herzbery theory tend to have a strong tie to  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Nevertheless, Herzbery has gone down in history due to this efforts in solving the problem of motivation.


  1. DAVID MC CLELLAND’S NEED THEORY MOTIVATION: On  addition to various other contribution towards the increased undertaking of motivation and its relative importance to the industry David C. Mc Clelland of the Harvard university contributions he identified three basic motivating. Need which he classified as need for power (n/poor) need fro affiliation (n/aff) and the need for achievements (n/Achi).  All these three drives power affiliation and achievement are of special  relevance to management since all must be recognized to make an organized enterprise work well.

Me Clelland believes that people posses that need for power affiliation and achievement but that people differ in the degree to which these need dominate their behaviors perhaps the most distinctive element of this study is the claim that the need can be learnt or unlearnt.


Furthermore in his research he was able to deduce that managers generally show high on  achievement and power and low on affiliation and also that need for achievement are stronger in small companies white it is avenge in  big companies with a stronger drive for power and affiliation and how to solve the..  He describe a problem wants is solve it thinks about how to solve it thinks about obstacles and thinks about people who might help this the need for achievement has been established or created and all factors are going to be directed towards accomplishing the task.



This direct the attention of an individual towards socializing our self in the  environment group or society on which he finds himself. It deals with the relationship people are keeping or are able to keep with others as well as others



Individual high in the need for power spend more than those who are lower in the need hierarchy. It involves the need it win arguments to persuade other to prevail from time to time feel uncomfortable if without a sense of power.



This theory was propounded  by C.P. Alderfer and ‘ERG’ stands existence relatedness and growth. The theory argues along with Maslow that people to have need that are arranged in hierachical order.  But Howe ever it differs from Msalow’s theory in two important aspects. First the ERG emphasized on a hierarchy of three components as against Maslow’s five hierarchical needs. The sand different highlight on the ability of people to move through the difference set of needs.

Although Aderfer does not see them as a hierarchy as Maslow did he instead observed or stated that one class of   needs might remain stronger whether or not class has been satisfied.

The Alderfers model reflects some difference from Maslow’s model. The three elements of Alerfers theory can be explained this.


These are regarded as well from of material and physiological factors that are necessary to  sustain human existence it includes all  of what Maslow referred to as physiological needs as well as need relating to material safety


This relates the development of human potentials in all ramification or at least in a specialized area of endeavour. This postulation is closely related to Maslow’s self esteemed and self-actualization needs .


This incorporates all socially oriented needs which include safely needs social needs and esteem need that is to say that that individual is  desirous to be accepted with group and society in general .

The contributions of  Alderfer are worth commendation but we all believe that he difference in individuals in work place that are due to internal vagaries of life forces one to place the ERG theory where others are placed



Elton Mayo and others of human relations movement school carried out an industrial research between 1924 and 1932 of the haw throne plant of the western electricity company in U.S.A His research founded attention on the behavioural approach to management and  conducted that an organization is a social system, s system of cliques grape vine informal states system rituals and a mixture of logical and non-logical and  illogical behaviour.

The famous Hawthorne plant study gave rise to what is known today as the “Hawthorne” they experimented on the effect of changing illumination modifying rest period shortening worked and varying incentives payment system or changes  in productivity. It was found out in general that the improvement in productivity was not due to such incentives enumerated above but due to such social factors as morals satisfactory inter- relationship between the work group that is a sense of   belonging and effective manageemnt a kind that would under standard human behaviour especially group behaviour emanating form such inter-personal skill as motivating counseling leading and communicating. These lade to people.  Being noticed and the has been generally know as Hawthorne effect the Hawthorne effect tend to reflect the interpersonal and group values were superior managerial or individuals value and this made members vulnerable to  group attitudes and pressures that is to say their supervise will be enable to motivate the individual& members to a significant degree.

In other words human behaviours are or could regarded as a function of person and their environment. But nevertheless it is turn to assume that Mayo’s human relation belief through group interaction could result  into individual workers being accepted belonging increased moral and participation on decision making could be to an extent increase in the level of their motivation towards increased productivity. It is pertinent  to observe that critics have   tagged Mayo’s view as the “ happiness theory of the  expenses of productivity” but yet one finds it objective to believe especially at that time that there are   elements of truth even of this present time in what mayo has theorized.



The idea of equity as it relates to motivation was first brought to limelight’s in the 1920s by whiting Williams who quitted his job and wrote a book  called mainspring of meri in which he postulated the equity theory of wages.  He stated that it was not the absolute level of pay a person receives that was important but what he received relating to what others are receiving. Impact are what the individual gives or invests in the employment relationship.  Effort education, experience and training are examples of unput the second component in the exchange process is the outcomes or things received as result of input which includes pay states recognition  growth opportunity and increase in opportunities represent possible outcomes. Nevertheless one observes have that the concept of money as a motivator has some bearing on the equity theory. But in this cases pay rises which tends to be inequitable in relation to what workers in the same level in other establishment as well as putting into consideration the programmes of individual workers people in various position  even though at a similar level  must be given salaries and brought that reflect their individual performance.  It is committed to the concepts and practice of comparative wages and benefits.

In the equity theory the response to whether motivation occurs not depends on what side of the equity theory is operating. On one case one could conveniently apply the economic concept of responses of supply in relation to price normally when price is low suppliers will  tend to reduce supplies and otherwise relating  this to equity theory it validates a situation where if management pays workers equitably in relation to what obtain else where  the effort expended will create a positive motivation that is increased  productivity.

But when inequity obtain there will be dissatisfaction and hence negative motivation and subsequently low productivity precisely the suppliers are  the worker who expend their effort and energy physical and mertal in nature and the manageemnt who ahs to pay for both he physical and mertal expenditure of the workers.

vii      SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED: In addition to the various other motivational theories that have been examined in this  work it is quite relevant to examine independently two other strong factors that have extended great influence on the process of motivation on the worker place especially in third world countries.

These two factors are:

  1. Money as a motivator
  2. Motivation by reinforcement


MONEY AS A MOTIVATOR :     Originally or   at least on documented evidence if was Fredrick Taylor known as the father of scientific management that postulated that when a workers is paid more money he increases his productivity.  As herzberg observed wages are  the most important hygienic factor and if people are not paid more in the  further then hey are presently receiving they will be dissatisfied this observation certainly have some validity and it should be not that under certain conditions wages could  have a degree of motivational  value. Wage increases and administration must take into account the individuals efficiency in work performance and should be administered at a time when the workers is conventionally expecting it  or as  if is stipulated in the contact of employment if dissatisfaction could occur and good performance could become discouraged.

Furthermore the two more requirement of a motivation stimulating wage system is

  1. That the increase awards must be give volume tarily
  2. And the wage increase must be large enough to have favorable effect on the individuals standard of living.

According to Koontz et al in their view over money and motivation observed that economists and most managers have tended to place money high on the scale of motivators contrary to the believe of the behavioual sauciest.

Neither view is probably right but if money is to be the kind of motivator that  is can and should be managers should remember several things that money as money likely to be most important to people who have is arrived in the sense that their money needs are not as urgent and money is an urgent means of achieving a minimum standard of  living this minimum has a way of expending upward as people become more affluent.

Secondly in some kind of business money is actually used a means of keeping an organization adequately staffed and not primary as a motivators.

Despite the various other factors which have been investigated be various theorists both behavioual and non-beehvaioural as being important for motivation and subsequent increase in productivity. The use of money in respect to its origin relative to the dynamic nature of human beings economic establishments and environment it could still be regarded as the base from which other factors evolved and therefore cannot be said to be competently covenant



The reinforcement concept is based on the research of B.F Skinnes who concluded that a person’s behaviour or motivation is a function of the behavioue is reinforced it tends to be repeating and if it is not reinforced it is likely to continues to occur. Positive reinforcement is explained by feldaman and others as “when a pleasant or desirable stimulus as applied contingent upon a person engaging in some behaviour and the like hood of the behaviour being repeated goes up positive reinforcement has  occurred”. In further understanding of motivation attention must be give to positive reinforcement as a means of influencing behaviours eliciting effort improving performance and increasing satisfaction. His application is the same regardless of whether one favours cognitive or non-cognitive explanation to its effectiveness.

Generally rewards are effective than  punishment in the manipulation of individual behaviour. The opportunity to provide positive reinforcment is available in most work organization and the most effective reinforces are mainly( tied to performance praises or recognition freedom to choose ones own activity opportunities to see oneself becoming better influenced elimination of unnecessary threats and punishment etc.


Conclusively the reinforcement concept in effect has shown us how motivation could occur due to reinforcement. That is to say that motivation could not only occur by men identification and application of the desired of individual workers as have been propounded by various theorists. But also that such  action taken that led people to produce more should also be reinforced from time to time so as   to maintain the motivational level


In he past few pages discussion have been carried out on the numerous individually unique theories which had been undertaken by various scholar in the bead to come out with the one-best-way of movating worker and groups in a work place in order to achieve high product out put.

Under this heading we will examine what many people called the expectancy theory or in other words the process theory.   The expectancy theory is a motivational theory propounded by vroom Lawler and porter and it tends to reflects motivation as a process which is influenced by many factors.  Many writers in their own understanding explained what expectancy theory mean and this paper will examine few of them.


According to Hampton and other “the central idea of expectancy theory is that people behave  as they do because they perceive that the behaviour with lead to a desired result”. They have an expectation or expectancy in this situation right now if I perform this way I will obtain a rewards of value.

Another research referred to as “ valence instrumentality expectancy (VIE) was propounded by vroom Lawler and porter.  They hypothesized that motivation is determined by these two factors:

  1. A persons perception regarding the relationship between his behaviour and the outcomes of that behaviour.
  2. The personal satisfaction or dissatisfaction which the person to experience as a result of obtained those outcomes.

In evolution of the two explanations given above the expectancy theory provided a useful formwork for integrating the elements most of the other theories discussed. This effect tends to create a process through which motivation could be effectively understood. In the views of Katz and Kalm the proceeding analysis of the process suggest that job satisfaction would not relate to  productivity except in special cases but that it would relate to staying in the system either to a low rate of absenteeism o a low rate turnover.

The attraction  of the job are less a matter furnishing different opportunities for the workers to show his skill and abilities and more but a matter of system determines working conditions wages and company treatments. Likely the job as operatives in many industrial setting  is not so much as intrinsic satisfaction with the content of the work as the reflection of the attractiveness of the system. Hence this more generalized job satisfaction should hold the individuals in the system.

Consequently vroom hypothetically stated this “if we assume that measure of job satisfaction reflect the valence of the job to its occupants then if follows our model that job satisfaction should   be related to the strength of the force on the person to remain in his and the less probability of this leaving it voluntarily”.

Really the process theory of motivation seems a difficult are and hard to understand. To further explain this theory let us examine some improtant components of this theory they are:

  1. The expectancy perception
  2. The  instrument perception

iii.      This valence perception


  1. THE EXPECTANCY PERCEPTION : This could in other words called efforts or force it deals with like hood that effort will lad to performance and it is abbreviated this in the diagram illustrates the possibility which might to perceived if you were deciding whether to attempt high performance or moderate performance at work. Factor influencing the          expectancy perception include experience of success or failure training     self coniferous    
  1. THE  INSTRUMENT PERCEPTION:  This involves the perceived like hood that performance it is occur will lead to the receipts of outcomes.  Some of the factors that influence instrumentality perception include reward and  penalties system organizational policies and    prior experience    


iii.      THIS VALENCE PERCEPTION: Valence here shows the value you attach to the various level of outcomes whether intrinsic or extrinsic. These levels of outcome determine the individuals level of effort he will be willing to put in a job

So for this work has given any reader an insight of what expectancy theory is all about though not completely but it has attest relayed a framework for a basic model of  one of the best motivational theories ever postulated. It is important to observe that it is unfortunate wispite of  its usefulness that the apparent complexities of expectancy theory discourage many who would be user.  Nonetheless you would not find expectancy theory difficult to use if you approach it properly especially in developed countries where human resources evaluation methods have been scientifically developed thereby creating many means of elevating job performance. But to a developing country like Nigeria we could do with the content theories of motivation while the expectancy or process theory should continue tot be a theory without particle for  the while.



The subjective and objective differences in individuals exist on a wider sphere in the issue of motivation.  As long as it is a fact that no person is exactly like the other so is it  that they differ slightly if not completely in other aspect of their lives and life style. The relationship between motivation and partly subconscious the wages and fringe benefits one receives for efforts expended are examples of couscous relationship and various aspect of the  motivational research are based on conscious phenomenon.  On the other hand other motivational factors center on sub-conscious phenomenon that is to say that he has some subjective or subconscious desire self-actualization rego personality power recognition etc.  At this level he is not concerned with the lower level needs because he is convenient enough to take care of them.

There are various need levels which virtually everybody will like to get to and such goals motivate you with action toward achieving it. But I think that goal you set and try to achieve  for yourself is subject to various internal and external factors such family inmate ability acquired knowledge peer group economic power personality luck structure of the society and much more yourself ( and your destroyers). The much you are endowed with these precious attributes the higher the degree of motivation in you which will alternatively determine your level of achievements


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