The Effect Of Product Advertising On A Company’s Sales Volume


It is imperative to explain the meaning of marketing and its function in order to give full meaning to this study. Marketing is a very broad discipline, versatile and all embracing. It can be defined in so many ways according to the functions it performs in every organization and society.

Onah and Thomas (1993:16) carried out a research on they made use of a sample of 280 customer. From this research they carried on, they were able to know what the customers mean by marketing. Therefore marketing entails the identification and satisfaction of peoples needs through a profitable exchange process.

The further observed that its philosophy activities and functions are contemporary, persuasive and needs. This definition reflects the two of the obligations business organization own their customers which are that of identification and satisfaction of their needs.


In 2000:1, Ejionueme in an attempt to breakdown the meaning of marketing by reflecting some marketing activities or aspects indicated that an organization engaged in research aimed that it would be likely buy a particular new product and their purchasing power as well as an individual engaged in the storage of fruits so as to make them available marketing the embrace that markeStigng concept the buying, selling, transporting advertising and merchandizing of goods and service. She also further state that marketing concept involves exchange activity which entails the transfer of the ownership of product to the consumers or buyers after the buyer must have paid for the product in cash or kind or both. The marketing activities in progress as displayed in Ejiouneme and as for required involves the following pre-product activities, product planning and development, appropriate price, distribution, promotion programme packaged, appropriate place and after sales services. All these are the activities that a marketer has to perform in other to reach their target market and also to make consumers or customer feel satisfactory about their product that is being produced.


Advertising is one of the variable promotional tools designed to promote and market organizational products. It plays a very vital role in the efficient marketing of products or goods and services. In view of this, it is pertinent to define advertising so as to enable this study achieve its purpose. Several authors have defined advertising in several ways but a few of those definitions will be examine in the study.

Practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON), came out with research about the definition of advertising in (1993:2) that advertising is a form of communication through media about products, services or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor.

In (2001:3) Onyeke observed the following inferred can be made from the other authors definition about marketing.

  1. Advertising message is always directed at a mass audience and not to a few individuals.
  2. Advertising is always paid for and the sponsor identified or identifiable.
  • In most instances advertisers try to reach members of their audience at the same time.

In (1980:467) Kotler come out with this own definition of advertisement. He observed that advertising refers to any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. He listed the following as the qualities of advertising.

Also Read: The Effect Of Advertising On The Sales Volume Of Beverages In Awka Metropolis

i.      Public presentation: This quality of advertising as a highly public mode of communication unlike the personal

selling. It public native bestows on its some degree of legitimacy, to the product and also    suggests a standardized offering. Since many persons receives .the same message, buyers know that their motives for purchasing the product will be publicly understood,
ii.     Pervasive: Advertising is a pervasive medium that permits the seller to repeat a message, receive and compare the messages of various competitors Lare-scale advertising by sellers says something positive about the seller’s size popularity and success

iii. Impersonally: Advertising, inspite of being public, pervasive and expressive, cannot be as completing as a company sales representative. As a matter of fact, the audience does not feel obligated to pay attention of

respond. Udeogha (1995:18) observed that advertising is a marketing promotion tool which is used to inform and educate a large audience of buyers or consumers about an organization its product and induce them to patronize the organization, that is to buy its goods. He further indicated that advertising shares some common characteristics with such promotional tools like personal selling and publicly, but however distinguished advertising form them in the following areas. Advertising is mass communication tool that uses such media as the radio, magazine, journals and newspapers to reach its audience which is usually large in addition advertising unlike publicity has an identified sponsor and it is usually paid for.

Bekee and Arens in (1992:7) found out on their own on part, that advertising as the non-personal communication of information about product, (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media.

Staton (1981: p419) on his study topic “the role of product advertising on sales volume of a companies. The researcher instruments used for data collection were mainly questionnaires structures, interview and observation.

The sample size was 400 and 300 questionnaires were distributed out and 200 were returned. And the population was 1000. The data collected were tabulated in frequencies and percentage. Chi-square was used to analyse and test the various hypothesis.

In this contribution to the important of advertising, listed the following as the objectives of advertising.

  1. It support personal selling
  2. It reaches people mat are inaccessible to the sales force.
  3. It improves dealer relations
  4. It helps in entering a new geographical market or attracting a new group of customers.
  5. It introduces a new product.

Function of advertising

Aren and Bokee (1986 p.234) carried out a research on the function of advertising, the data was collected from the company (Lever Brother) and customers. The researcher made use of questionnaire and oral interview. The questionnaire were directed to the company and the customers.

The population was 500 while the sample size were 200, respondent out of 200 questionnaire only 100 were returned. Data collected were analysed through the use for percentages and chi-square (X2). Form their investigation as the functions of advertisement.

  1. Marketing function
  2. Communication function
  3. Economic function
  4. Education function
  5. Social function

Advertising is a vital tool needed for the execution of the marketing activities of every business organization. Its important in performing the marketing function of companies is palpable when it is known that without advertising, production and services offered by companies to the buyers will remain unknown. More so, advertising is a vital element in the marketing mix of getting information on goods and services to the consciousness of the target audience. Communication function by providing some buying information to the consumers, as regards their buying needs which have to do with the availability of product, sources of these products and used of the product. All the useful information concerning.

Finally, advertising performs social function because it supports and promotes issues that border on societal monohsitage, values and psyche. It does this effectively by providing information on goods and or product or services needed in the society. Product and its types

Product is one of the important component of the marketing mix which include other component like price, promotion and place.

Generally speaking, product constitutes such an important element of the marketing mix that without product or services marketing activities wouldn’t be complete. As a matter of fact, product offering forms the heart of a organization’s marketing programme and is usually the starting point in creating a marketing mix.

In fact, it is the pivot upon which other important element of the marketing mix revolve. It is regarded as most important element of the marketing mix because without the product, there would be no marketing as there would be nothing to offer to the market.

Kotler (1983:p246) on his own part conceives product as anything that can be offered to the market attention, acquisition,, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or a need”. He further added that it includes physical objects, services, persons, place, organizations and ideas”. He also regards persons and organization as product because they can
attract buyers attention and besides persons records or ideas can be purchased, while an organization can be promoted so that its product attract the buyers attention and loyalty. Zimund (1986:p220) identified the following types of product,
i.        Physical and non-physical products

  1. Durable and non-durable product

iii.   Agricultural manufactured product

iv    consumers and industrial product.


Physical products refers to those tangible items like, yam, Garri, rice, beef, chairs, tables, radio, television, shoes, gowns, knife and matchet etc. that can be seen, felt or touched. They are usually purchased by individuals or groups for household or industrial uses.

  • Non-physical product, usually called services comprise those intangible product like insurance and banking services, legal and medical services, vehicle maintenance, haircuts and other things that are not tangible and
  • Agricultural products refer to those products of industrial and household. Farms that have neither received any treatment nor undergone any serious manufacturing process. Products within the class include yam, cassava, orange and rice etc. Manufacturing product on the other hand comprise those product of industrial production and processes. They include physical and non-physical consumer and industrial goods that result from industrial production. Products within the class are cars, equipment, fruits and dresses of all kinds, vegetables, machinery and beverages.
  • Consumer product consists of all goods and services purchased to satisfy the needs of both households and These products can either the durable or non-durable goods, but they are usually meant for ultimate consumption by the buyers. As reported by Zikmund (1986:p220) Capeland in 1924 indentified three classes of consumer products namely:-
  1. Convenience products
  2. Shopping product
  3. Specialty product


  • Convenience product are those relatively in expensive goods consumers usually buy on a regular basis, milk,
    chewing gum, bic, tissue paper and cigarettes.
  • Shopping products on the other hand, of expensive, but durable household goods that require high capital outlay for their purchases. These products as pointed out are expensive and include such goods as video and television sets, radio, refrigerators, air conditioners, cars, furniture, electric iron and gas cookers.
  • Specialty products are those goods with unique and special features which endear them to they form part of the end product of proction, but are not easily spotted in the finished products.
  • Capital equipment or installations consist of expensive capital products like Crane, plants and machinery that last for a very long period of time. Their purchase is usually preceded by detail planning and negotiations.
  • Accessory equipment consist of lighter and more flexible and mobile equipment like trucks, hand tools, office typewriters, tables, chairs and calculators that are expensive than the capital equipment and equally have a shorter life span.
  • Supplies comprise those product like pencil, Bic, lubricating oil, cleaning agent, paper and envelop that are routinely purchased and used for operations in companies.
  • Industries services refer to those intangible products that firms and organization provide to their customers in the industrial sector. They included such services like financial and legal services, after sales services, maintenance and repair services.

Significant of advertising in product life cycle

Having discuss some fundamental issues bordering on advertising and product, it is pertinent to examine the concept of product life cycle and the significance of advertising in various stages of the cycle.

Product life cycle is one of the universally accepted concepts in marketing which has attracted the attention of every authors in the marketing field. The concept occupies a prominent positioning companies or organizations that produce and offer products or services to the general public for sale.

This concept as rightly observed by Ejionueme (2000:45) provides a way to trace the stages of a products acceptance from its introduction (birth) to its decline (death).

Product like living organizing have a life cycle, and just like the organisms are born, grow, reach adulthood and eventually age and die. Products of companies are usually introduced into the market where they grow, reach maturity and eventually declined, necessitating their withdrawal as noted by Baker and Mc-Tavish (1979:10). For instance, Product like gramophones and charcoal pressing iron, commonly in use some forty and fifty years ago, have become outdated and no longer in use today. Technology improved electronic sets and electric pressing iron have been produced and introduced into the markets by companies.

Every product that has been manufactured by companies must be advertised in order to make it known to the consuming pubic. It is very important to note that it is not only newly introduced or manufactured products are advertised, but some existing ones are advertised by companies.

This is very important because the goal of every company is to increase its sales volume. This can only be achieved when the demand for its products is high. Therefore, there is a very strong correlation between advertising and the product life cycle and sales volume.

Gilligan and Fifield (1995:113) identified four distinct stages in the product life cycle as diagrammatic ally represented below using figure 244 below:


  1. Product Development:

At this stage, technical development of the new product takes off. The new product development document is put into used of this stage to produce a prototype of the intended product and its use is necessary in order to inform the consumers about the product.

  1. Test marketing:

The concept of test marketing involves the introduction of a new product into a limited market in order to assess its acceptability in the market. At this stage mild advertising of the intended product is also necessary in order to inform and educate consumers concerning the products and its use.

  1. Commercialization

This is the last stage of the new product development process. At this stage, the final decision concerning the production of the product and its introduction into the target market is taken. Before this final decision is taken all the necessary changes or modifications that needs to be made on the product given the result of the test marketing exercise are addressed at this stage. Commercialization comprises, two phases namely Preparation and launching or introduction phase. At the preparation phase, the necessary arrangement regarding financing of product, as well as the plant and machinery required for its production and adequately made and provided.

The introduction phase is the phase at which the new product is introduction into the market. At this stage, heavy advertisement of the newly introduced product is inevitable to enable the product survive this stage.


The marketing activities in progress as displayed Ejionueme and as far required involves the following pre-product activities product planning and development, appropriate price, distribution, promotion, programme packaged, appropriate place and after sales services. Marketing involves a re-orientation form putting the company in the

centre affairs to putting the customers first.  In other words the survival growth and profitability of every organization depend on how the customers respond to this company’s goods and services.

Functions of advertising

The following are functions of advertising

  1. Marketing function
  2. Communication function

iii.   Economic function

  1. Educational function
  2. Social function

Marketing function of companies is palpable when it is known mat without advertising, production and services offered by companies to the buyers will remain unknown. More so, advertising is also vital element in the marketing mix of getting information on goods and services to the consciousness of the target audience.

Communication function: This includes providing some buying information to the consumers, as regards their buying needs which have to do with the availability of product, sources of these products and used of the product.

Economic function advertising possess the ability of stimulating economic activities in the society. It provides some useful information that triggers off increase in sales turnover as a result of increase in consumers action. Social function: This supports and promotes issues that border on societal monohsitage, values and psyche. It does this effectively by providing information on goods and on product or services needed in the society.


The aim of every company is to introduce a new product into the market. This is very common with brewing companies which always find it healthy and necessary to develop some new products. For the newly introduced products to survive and succeed in the ever competitive market, they must be supported with heavy advertisements. This is highly imperative to enable consumers of buyers become are and well informed of the existence of the existence of the products as well as what they can derive from their consumption.

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