The Effect of Leadership Style on Workers Performance in a Manufacturing Firm



Leadership has often been likened to managerial leadership but the concept can be traced in both formal and informal organizations. One can manage without leading by simple aligning to the statuesque.  The manager is able to direct people through the use of formal authority while on the other hand the leader lead through the use of informal authority. The effective managers is one who is able to combine both qualities.

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Max (1992) defined leadership as an influence process dynamic of which are a function of personnel characteristic of a leaders and follower and the nature of the specific situation?

Stone in Agbo (2002) also define leadership as “a person appointed to organize task related activities towards the attainment of group goals or objectives”

Abraham (1991) defined leadership as “the inter personal process by which managers influence employees to accomplish set task goal. The act of the creative leader is the art of institution building the re-working of human and technological materials of fashion an organization that embodies new enduring values.  The fact accomplished by leadership is to transform a  personalities organization of indifferent people into an institution of people who feels committed  to aviating it’s goals who identify with the company and find working in it a meaning constructive part of their lives.

Nwandu etal (2002) defined leadership “ the activity of influencing people to co-operate towards some goal which they came to find desirable” real leadership in interested in how people can be brought to work together for a common end effectively and happily

Drucker (1984) “To be productive and efficient  the enterprise need the abilities initiatives and co-operation to every workers more  tan any previous system of production it’s resources are it’s  greatest asset and the one least used”

When an employee is allowed to participate the organization he personally devices joy in seeing what he suggested being implemented. This increases his moral. This help in increasing their productivity.


Leadership is noted to be systematic manner of handling situation which come up at certain times this for leadership to be fully appreciable there trait must be present.

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Bavelas (1980) has it that the first leads us to look at the availability and ability of individuals the second leads us to look at the patterns of power and authority in organizations here the ability are more talked no in that because they are often used to determine the leaders effectiveness

Proter etal (1984) had it that leader are born and not made and that leadership were explicit. This allowed the leader to be credited not only with the normal abilities but also extra ordinary power. Trait has that emotional stability and maturity a strong desire to achieve this ability to co-operate with others and  a high degree of personal integrity. The above authors sought very hard to elicit how the presence traits a skills effect the behaviour of the workers in the organization.  Appling the correlation method they found out that different people posses particular skill or trait where as their not have such qualities in them. In the research of porter and apple white the qualities  encounters almost made them to   believe that leader are born with such abilities and not develop the all these case were solved through observation and interview administered by the different mangers the result showed that leaders develop most of these ability while practicing the act of leadership.

In the present environment these shows that effect of trait skill recognitions and   situation to effect has impact this leading to organization sational efficiency

Stodgill (1994) found out that various  researcher identified five (5) physical traits related to the leadership ability (such as energy appearance and height) intelligence and ability traits sixteen personality trait such as adaptability aggressiveness enthusiasm and self-confidence six task related characteristic (such as achievement drive persistence and initiative and social characteristics such as co-operative interpersonal) skill and administrative ability  the finding of wire land (1996) has the same view according to the circumstance in which the leaders finds himself. They refers to the fact the trait another may be important dependably on the goal sought by the group being led the nature of the problem faced the composition of the group and particular behaviour according to the group need

The research of Stodgill, Wieland and  were almost same as that of Bavelas and apple while though stodgill tries  to distinguish clearly the   difference between types of  traits (physical ability personal) with other characteristic. Nevertheless the situation in Nigeria environment adheres the interaction of all the traits present to determine the effectiveness of the leadership to determine organization efficiency.

Leadership traits it they exist would be many effete and hence difficult to identify proter etal (1988) postulated that there is the possibility of leadership effectiveness trait or attributes being in existence but may not have been based on inadequate assumption wood worth (1998) differentiated a leaders personal traits and that of leadership effective traits.  He define former as the consistent quality of behaviour projected in the organization which characterize the individual in a wide range of his activities and is fairly consistent over a period of time.  The latter is a consistent reliably measurable personality attribute which differentiates effective from in effective leaders. Port (1984) support this by stating that the behaviour in organization is dependent on the leadership effectiveness traits which manifest itself only unless appropriate conditions. Agbo (2002) leadership is the position of a leader which is the   act  of influencing others to work towards achieving the desired goal. Traits refers to particular qualities of a good leader or a person that is distractive character.

There are two school of though as to which trait or style of a leader uses in dealing with his subordinates these are.



1 TRAIT THEORY:    This theory believe that leaders are born not made.

  1. ACHIEVEMENT THEORY: This theory believes that leader are made not born this means that all men are born equal. The theory believe that is the duty of  every person to make himself great through skill acquisition education experience etc.

research studies also indicated sufficient correlation between certain traits and leadership effectiveness in affecting organization behaviour of management and employees. Stodgill (1998) found that these was a definite correlation between the trait of intelligence  scholarship dependability responsibility social participation and socio-economic status of leaders compared with the non- leaders.

A determined effort was made by Keith Dains reporting the extent of the nature leaders the traits of high intelligence broad social interest and maturity strong motivation in helping to people which affect the degree of which the entire organization reacts and behaves live wise this is also the views of Ghibella (1985)  while making findings from his researchers on the effect of skill on leader and impact on the subordinates



The system of management deals extensive with studying the patterns and styles of leaders and managers. The runner of these systems was liket Rensis. He developed certain concepts and approaches important to understanding leadership behaviours.

Liket (1987) caved this “model of management effectiveness” in sharing views this Douglas Mcgregor and chins Avgyins he found out that managers who are traditionally authoritarian have less motivation for their subordinates than managers who actively supported their subordinates feelings of worth and importance. He developed a model group it into four said than an organization can be based on any of the four.

SYSTEM 1 EXPLOITATIVE AUTHORITATIVE : Manaegrs who belong to this group make all work related decision and instruct   their subordinates  to carry them out. There is the application of rigidity in setting standards and methods of performance but  these of managers inability  to reach the goals by the subordinates result in threats punishment and even ostracisation. The managers have no confidence and little trust on the subordinates and the subordinates in turn sear them feeling that they have little or nothing in common

SYSTEM 2 BENEVOLENT AUTHORITATIVE:    In this style orders are still issued by managers but subordinates have little freedom to comment on the orders. Subordinates area also allowed the freedom to carryout their assignments by within a carefully proscribed limits and procedures. Those who meet the managers orders may be  rewarded.

Subordinates are always cautious in dealing with managers with this styles of style

SYSTEM 3 CONSULTATIVE: With this type of styles goals are set and orders issued only if they have been discussed with the subordinates decide on how best to achieve their task.  Instead of fear and threat of punishment rewards are used  in motivating subordinates most work related matters are discussed between the mangers and the subordinates to a large extent there is trust in carrying out their  assignment  and other relationships .

SYSTEM 4 PARTICIPATE MANAGEMENT:         Work related decision and goals are jointly set by the groups formal decision reached by mangers are arrived at after incorporating the suggestions and opinion of other members economic rewards feeling of worth and importance are used in rewarding  subordinates.  Standards of measurement exist only to permit self judgment by subordinates intended   of being a tool to control the subordinates relationship between managers and subordinates are trusting friendly and frank.



This deals with how or situation in which every leader applies discretion in order to led effectively . the best way to improve leadership performance is either through leadership training or changes the entire leadership situation. Davis New strom (1987) it is this seen that is much easier to change various aspect of man’s job than to charge the man. Fielder (19,92) in his view stated that a leader performance depends not only on his but also on the organization factor that determine the leaders control and influence that is “situational favorableness” therefore it could be seen that appropriate training and  experience improve situation as favorableness.

Koontz (1980) asserted that leadership is the product of a given situation and  that leadership is strongly affected by the situation from which the leaders emerges and in which he or she operates

Filley etal (1996) in their view it pointed out that effective leadership depends upon to such environmental factors the history of the organization the psychological climate and the time required for decision making.

Conversely fielder (1985) suggested that it is certainly easier to place people  in a situation compatible with their natural leadership styles than to force them to adopt the demand of the job.  This was supported greatly by pointing that the favourableness of the work situation will determine the effectiveness of a  particular leadership style permissive (considerate) and authoritarian (controlling) style   of leaderships are both effective but each is effective in different kinds of works situation.

Viewing the approach Filley etal ( 1996) provides specific consolations about the condition under supportive leadership behaviour is most effective

He ascertains as follows:

  1. Decision are not routine in nature
  2. Feel a strong need for independence
  3. Regard their participation in decision making as legitimate


Furthermore    the research stated that almost every manager in an organization could perform effectively providing that we place him in a situation that matches his personality providing are know how to match his training and experience to the available jobs and providing that we takes the troubles



The concept to continuum recognized that and appropriate style of leadership depend on situation and more on personalities

Koontz supported this by stating that the variety of style varice with the degree of authority leader or manager grants to subordinates. This instead of suggesting a choice between the two styles of leadership- authoritarian or democratic this approach offer right another wrong.

Tarinerbum etal (1988) saw leadership as involving a variety of style ranging from one that is highly boss centred   to one that is highly subordinated centred.

Tannenbum pointed out that the most important elements that might influence a manager style alone this continuum

  1. The forces operating in the management personality including his her value confidence in subordinates toward leadership style and feelings of security in uncertain situation.
  2. Forces in the situation such as organization involves in the traditions her effectively subordinates work as a unit the nature of a problem and whether authority to handle it can be safely delegated and the pressure of time


In addition while reviewing their continuum model circle was placed around it  to represent the influence are style in posed both by the “organization evolvement” this represents the open system nature of leadership styles



Bringing the relationship to the population of  country’s standards of living is determined by it’s capacity to produce foods and service for consumption overtime

The essential factors for making all these possible is the individuals own initiative and desire. People must be motivated to want to grow and develop both in their present job performance in the part of the people concerned and the key to job/ workers performance in motivation. This is a challenge which faces level of productivity. Maximum productivity depends on individual job performance depends on individual motivation.

Megrn (1995) stated that “the essence of leadership is influencing the actions of other. The essential quality of leadership is that they convinced that something must be done and the persuade other to help them get it done. Approach of the leaders  is getting thing done matters a lot a positive approach is sound to generate poor attitude of subordinate to work.

Massive (1997) also define leadership as a process through which the performance of others is influence by one person over another in achieving goal thus is clear that leadership relationship with productivity is the one in which the leader influence other to work together willingly and encourage motivation on   related tasks it’s is behaved that without leadership organization would compose of uncoordinated group of people lacking unity and direction.

In conclusion a leader occupies a very important position which his role in a leadership situation is under consideration like the captain of ship who has the power to influence and direct the ship to its destination. Move so a leaders should try and encourage motivation use of it’s resources efficiently and the company would be specially interested in maximizing in productivity of those resources are relatively scarce


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