The Effect Of Advertising On The Sales Volume Of Beverages In Awka Metropolis

THE EFFECT OF ADVERTISING ON THE SALES VOLUME OF BEVERAGES IN AWKA METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF MILO, BOURNVITA AND VIATALO)

These chapter briefed literature review on the concept of advertising, its origin and definition. Advertising media selection was discussed in the study.

Furthermore, the chapter also reviewed a number of media selection, since it is not possible for the  advertiser to use all these media at the same time, due mainly to the cost implication and the inappropriateness of some of them for his purpose, the task now is to choose the one that best serve his purpose and accomplish his objectives. Which type of media should be used? Eg, Newspaper, Radio, TV, Magazine, Direct mail, Billboard, Yellow pages etc.

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Finally, the chapter also discussed the review of current related research carried out by other students and lectures likewise authors on which the study rest.

 

2.2    Origin of Advertising

The origin of advertising took-off around 3200 BC when the Egyptians stencited inscription of the names of kings on the temples being built. Later they wrote run away-slave announcement on the papyrus. Signboards were placed outside Egypt around 1500B.C.

It was until 1904 that paid advertisement were printed in the united state. Later Benjamin Finalalin made advertisement more readable by using large lead lines and by surrounding the advertisement with considerable white space. By 1771, there were 31 newspapers in the colonies and all called advertising.

The development of modern  advertising has its root in the English background, if any institution other than democracy itself can be sold to be a synonymous with America,  that institution is advertising for a variety of reasons, however English and American advertising did not follow paralled parts of development of the number of different forces contributing to the difference in advertising rate of growth in the two countries, a particularly significant obstacle to its expansion in England was the tax imposed by the crown of both newspaper and their advertisement.

Another development that had become apparently at about the 1990s was that the magazine was grouping the advertisement from particular industries.  Thus during March and April, when insertion by the horticultural suppliers were at their height, they were collected consistently into one part of a page, usually the top of the 4th column of the 7th i.e the penultimate page of each issue showing vividly the characteristics of certain items.

To purchase the complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our bank accounts below:

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ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891

After paying the sum of N3, 000, send your full name, email address and the title of the project topic as text message to our phone: 07033378184

We will send your complete project materials to your email within 10 Mins after payment.

 

The first modern advertisement agency was N.W Ayer and Sons, Inc founded in Philadelphia  plc in 1869. Ayer introduced the commission system in the 1970s by convincing newspapers to give discounts the agency then charged the client full, price for space used. This same concept later spread to magazines, Radio, and Television. The rise of their dormancy during the civil war of the patent medical industry tends to substantiate frank presbicy hypothesis that conflicts and it appalling consequences for that industry and the advertising it employed.

Also Read: Advertising as an Effective Promotional Tool in the Delivering of Banking Service.

2.3             Definition of Advertising

In defining advertising, Mc Carthy [1982] defined advertising “As any paid form of non personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

Advertising practitioners council [APCON) of Nigeria defines it as “a form of communication through media about product, services, or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor.

Advertising is a paid non-personal communication through various media with the purpose of informing or persuading members of a particular audience[Boone and Kurtz 2004]

Bovee and Arens[1996] see advertising as a non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services, ideas by an identified sponsor through the various media.

Kotler and Keller[2009] say advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

We conclude with Winston Fletcher’s [1979] definition that advertising is the “dissemination of sales message through purchased time and space.

  • Types of Advertising
  • Informative advertising is used to inform consumes about a product, service or future or build primary demand. It is often used when launching a new product, or for an updated or relevant product.
  • Persuasive advertising- marketers use persuasive advertising to increase the demand for an existing good, service, or organization. The idea persuades a target audience to develop customer loyalty.
  • Reminder advertising- reminder advertising reinforces previous promotional information. It is used to keep the public interested in and aware of a well established product that is most likely at the end of the product life cycle.
  • Comparative advertising- this type of advertising is used to compare two or more brands together by specific factors. It is also used when a company is entering a market with strong competitors.

2.5         Advertising Media

Advertising media selection is the process of choosing the most cost effective media for advertising, to achieve the required coverage and a number of exposures in a target audience. In this approach advertising is classified on the basis of the type of media in which the advertisements are run.

To this end we have the following,

  • Radio Advertising
  • Television Advertising
  • Magazine advertising
  • Outdoor advertising
  • Mail order Advertising

In detect reference to their names; advertisement appears on the indicated media. We can also identify media advertising as point and electronic advertising.

Print advertising comprises:

  • Newspaper advertising
  • Magazine
  • Direct mail
  • Outdoor advertising

Electronic advertising is made up of :

  • Radio advertising
  • Television advertising
  • Firms and other electronic advertising
  • Radio- Radio is of course the most widely available of all other mass media. Its ubiquity is evidence in the avalanche of AM and FM stations heard in both urban and even very remote areas. It is infact the only advertising medium that permits its audience to go about any other chores while still a participant [listener]
  • Television-Television is the faster growing medium of advertising. Television prides itself in its unique quality of being able to combine most of the function performed individually by other media such as sound, motion, vision, color, demonstration etc.
  • Newspaper –Newspaper belong to the print media. It is a veritable medium for advertising to reach their target audience with their messages. There are many classification of newspaper such as by audience, coverage, size, frequency and ownership.
  • By Coverage we have those covering wide geographical areas like [like that National Dailies such as vanguards, Guardian, The sun etc and those covering limited geographical areas [Poly news, Aguata voice etc.]
  • By Audience deals with the interest the newspaper caters for. Thus we have general interest which targets the general public or special interest which targets specific groups
  • By size, we have standard and tabloid newspapers. The standard newspaper is folded, eg the Democrats of those days, while Ike tabloid is usually flat eg Guardian, The sun etc.
  • By frequency we have daily, weekly, monthly etc
  • In terms of ownership, we have government, private or in house papers.
  • Magazines- Magazine is the second most important        print medium after newspaper. Like newspaper, magazine comes in different variant which are evident in size, frequency, editorial appeal and coverage.
  • Out of Home media-This is one of the oldest medium of advertising. Out of home media is a generic name for all the advertisement found or seen on our way from our home to our offices, point of purchase or other destinations. There are three major type of :
  • The billboards
  • The non standardized signs
  • The transit media
  • Billboard are erected or affixed posters or painted structure with broad, flat surface area regulated in sizes and design, and used to display advertising messages at strategic places. Billboard can be ordinary. Illuminated or animated.
  • Non standardized signs-They are made up of other road signs that are not regulated by Outdoor Advertising Association of Nigeria[OAAN]
  • Transit Media-The transit media are fondly “referred to as the journey media” [Okpara 2002]. This medium is made up of the following:
  1. Strikers of Cards
  2. Travelling Display
  3. Station Posters/Displays
  • Point of Purchase Media-point of purchase [POP] advertising according to Wright et al [1977] is the promotional materials situated in, on or immediately adjacent to retail or wholesale distribution designed to build traffic for the retailer register impression, redirect in-store traffic and actually sell merchandise.
    • Review of Current Related Studies

John .A. 1997 studied the impact of advertising on sale of Toilet Soap. His objectives are as follows; to know the impact of advertising on sales of toilet soap. To know if the success of the product is due to qualities in the product.  He used relative and non relative techniques  and questionnaire for gathering data collection .

 

From the data collected and analyzed, the researcher came up with the following major finding; product promotion increases sales for products. Major medium of creating awareness is the electronic medium. Budget allocation to promotion is adequate.

Nwankwo 1998 studied “The Effect of Advertising in Marketing of Beer in Anambra Metroplis” [A case study of Star Beer]

Her objective of this studies are as follows:

To determine the degree of acceptance of star Beer and other Beers

  • To find out if consumers are aware of the product existence.
  • To determine whether advertising increase the company turnover.

Data Collection Procedure

The facts for this study were obtained from two sources which are primary and secondary sources.

Primary Source-Here the researcher employed two basic methods namely the use of oral interview and the questionnaire.

Secondary Source-This is the second information relevant to the topic under study gathered from different rest, journal, other articles written by well informed intellectuals.

 

Findings

From the data collected and analyzed, the researcher came up with the following major findings:

It was found out that Nigeria Brewery plc do not advertise Star lager beer.

It was also found out that they make use of Radio, Television, Magazine and Billboards for the advertisement.

The researcher also saw a need for improvement of the advertising campaign so as to meet the dynamic nature of the market.

According to Ozor [1993] “Promotion is persuasive in that it attempt to make people from a stage of awareness from linking to preference or from conviction to purchase.

According to Kotler[1980p.602]“Modern marketing calls for more that developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making it readily accessible to target information about their product through advertising.

 

Kotler [2009] define direct marketing as an interactive marketing system that muses one or more advertising media

to affect a measurable response and or transaction at any location.

In other wordsof Kotler and Armstrong [1996:481] integrated marketing communication [IMC] is the concept under which A company carefully integrates  and compelling message about the organization and its products.

According to Adirika, Ebue and Nnolim[1996 p.106] they maintained that advertising is a powerful marketing communication to of used by companies to fulfill the promotion task. All about advertising is a sponsor sending a message called advertisement through one or more mass media [Radio, Television, Newspaper, Magazine] to reach target number of potential users or buyers of a product.

 

2.7 Summary of Literature Review

The chapter briefed literature review on the concept of advertising, its origin and definition. Advertising media selection was also discussed in the study.

Furthermore, the chapter also reviewed a number of media selection, since it is not possible for the advertiser to use all these media at the same time, due mainly to the cost implication and inappropriateness of some of them for his purpose, the task now is to choose the will best serve his purpose and accomplish his objectives. Which type or types of media should be used? Eg. Newspaper, Radio, TV, Magazine, Direct mail, Billbord, Yelow pages etc.

Finally, the chapter also discussed the review of current related research carried out by other students and lectures likewise authors on which the study rest.

 

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