The Dearth of Technological Equipment and Effect on Secretarial Job Performance


 In this chapter, relevant literature related to the present study were reviewed. The review was presented under the following sub-headings:

  1. The causes of the dearth of technological equipment in ministries.
  2. The effects of the dearth of technological equipment among the organization usages.
  3. The effects of the dearth of technological equipment on the performance of secretarial job.
  4. The role of secretary.
  5. Summary of review literature.


  1. The causes of the dearth of technological equipment in ministries

According to Ajakemo (1999) there are many technological equipment which include word processor, electric typewriter, laminating machine, photocopying machine etc.

He further stated that in those days, some organization lack equipment than in this computer age.

Okafor (1997) described computer as a device that accepts data (facts and figures) carries out prescribed operation of the data and issues the results of these operations meaningful information.

Furthermore, Ani (2000) maintained that a computer is a machine, which with the help of other accessories can accept information process it and bring out result, he went further to say that it can stoke, edit and monitor facilities.

Evens (2002) expresses his opinion on the contribution of technological equipment to the efficiency of the secretary, the transmission of data has placed a premium on the accuracy of data input.

Some organization find it difficult to purchase equipment in the office, and hence they lack that equipments, it makes the organization to move backward and also it will make them not to achieve their goal.

The causes of dearth of technological equipment is as follows:

  1. Inadequate of equipment and qualified staff.
  2. Improper maintenance and care
  3. Cost finance.


Inadequate of equipment and qualified staff:

It is believe from the forth going ot this work that computer provides some important benefits both to the organization, society and the worker at large. The lack of these equipments lead to unproductively and inefficiency to organizational output.

Also, the lack of well-trained and experienced secretary to manage the equipment in the office is another cause even if the equipment is available.

Improper maintenance and care:

This equipment lead to their under utilization. As was stated by Littlefield et al (1998), “when equipment breaks down or function improperly, much valuable time can be lost, other operators are interrupted, and other damagers result”.

Elendu (2001), it is the practice in most organization where many of these office equipment are in usage to engaged the service of expert maintenance personnel to keep them always on good working condition. He maintained that it is only when this s done, that work in the office will continue without interruptions. It is therefore, expected of organization to engage the service of personnel as well as establishing proper control measure to check the carefree attitude of the secretaries toward the


Cost finance:

Since our nation is growing computerized in all sectors of professions, the organization requires heavy finance to provide the secretary with necessary equipment needed in the performance of their duties.

The components of cost are, the initial cost of capital, cost of acquisition and installation, other cost are labour cost, training operations, stationary, operation supplies, maintenance, hiring  and depreciation.

Any office where they lack equipment, if brings unproductivity to that organization, it also make them to loss their staff in this new era.


  1. The effects of the dearth of Technological Equipment:

Shaw (1999) say’s that any organization, that doesn’t  equipments like; computer, photocopying machine, duplicating machine, telephone, laminating machine etc can not achieve anything at the end of the day. It also affect the organization because the workers will be running away.

He further said, lack of technological equipment in the organization make’s the organization to move backward.

Whitehead (2005) has asserted that the development and application of computer into the office system in recent years has revolutionized office practices. A program is a set of instructions that are executed by the computer. Instructions are fed into computer, which enables it to process any data supplied. Organizations need technological equipment because it will make everything they are doing to be neat, fast and accurate.


  1. The effects of the dearth of technological equipment on the performance of secretarial job:

Robert (2002) say’s there is the need for the secretaries who are the life wire of the organization to be aware of these technological equipment as it their domain in the office.

Elendu (1999), he said in his write up that, “The success of any organization is entirely determined by the level of mobilization of employee efforts, and many as they can only give in their best service when the are satisfied.

Hence, the assertion that the workers  is motivated by consistent and sustainable training since it does not only expose him/her to technological advancement in the system but reassure her of the hope to self- actualization. Instead of employing specialist to handle the machine, training make the secretary to develop greater self confidence. When this is not done, it makes the worker insolate, redundant and mentally withdrawn intently.

Milward (1999) said, “less flexibility than human brain and less flexibility of methods in modification or change”. Without adequate fund, offices will not be well equipped and secretaries will not be properly trained as a result cannot carryout their duties effectively, which will in turn affect the productivity of the organization. Some thing a secretary will type within zomins in the computer, will then take he/she two days to type in manual typewriter.

He further said, it also makes the secretary laize in the office, because no equipment.


  1. The role of secretary:

Harrison (2005) have described the role of a secretary as an indispensable one in an organization. The author maintained that no one worker in the organization carries out such numerous tasks as the secretary and that a competent must be able to carryout various tasks to relieve his immediate boss/employer, if a deal of outing work and enquiry to do this, he/she most possess a good background knowledge of the structure of the business. also, again maintains that the secretary at the upper level may even deputies for his/her employer during his/her boss’s absnce and to defer only these decision that are very important nature until the return of his/her boss.

The general understanding of the secretary is that he/she provides on extension of his personality and exists to increase the chief  with “more eyes, more ears and more hands” to aid I performing his/her job. Decisions ate made by chief and carried out by subordinates, but the problems come to the chief predigested with all  necessary research already undertaken by the secretary when decisions are made, instruction for carrying them out are given by the secretary in the name of and under the responsibility of the chief.

Eni (2004) thus, a good secretary must make practicable to widen the boss span of control and consequently the success of the organization. No organization can function without adequate attention being paid to the secretarial job are inherent in every organization and must be performed either by a professional secretary and no professionals. The difference is when to makes secretarial function an important component of an organization administration. The position of secretary carries with it a great deal of responsibilities and it is not only the sill but, also the confidence and cheerfulness, attitude and competence that create the impression that a secretary is effective.

Luck (1999) has described the role of the secretary by saying that the secretary’s ability to type and take dictatation is not enough for today’s secretary. The truly professional secretary should have the ability to write a good letter or even speeches. The secretary must know much of the general organization of his firm and its operational procedures. He must be able to prepare manuscripts or other materials for printing, he must have knowledge of communication and business etiquette and must be able to plan travel itineries. The author maintains  that the professional secretary should infact to a large extent, able to take over most of the duties or responsibilities of the executive by whom he is employed when he is absent.

Stanwell et al Shaw (2000) have viewed the secretary as a dynamic link in all organizational administration, and as one who can make or break an organization. The secretary’s greatest contribution to the well being of any organization and consequently to the economy in general is by his living in the true spirit of the profession. The author further asserted that an economy and up-to-date record and information resources which the secretary can supply for effective decision making. The secretarial services include the various super services that every executive department or staff requires in order to carryout his assigned duties successfully, economically and efficiently.

Coombs (2001), has described the secretary as a key figure in any organization when his rote is compared with those of his fellow staff members. He says that the secretary’s duty is a vital one and that if contributes immensely to the progress of organization towards the achievement of its co-operate objectives. The author also maintains that the positions and role of the secretary in an organization is indispensable and that it is difficult for one to say whether without a secretary in organization, the organization can grow?

Mecauley (1999) has said that the secretary’s role in an organization involves decision-making. This is because of the fact that the secretary is very close to the management and has an opportunity to offer useful suggestions on certain matters that are of very important in nature. The author in view of this fact, the secretary is seen as a partner in the affairs of the organization and that partners have to put heads together to consider strategies for making business grow and making profit out of hard work and equal contribution of ideas and suggestion that will be of great help to the continuous growth of the business. some authors have described the secretary as a catalysts because of his interacting role with multi-level employees and as an extension of the managerial function, a professional secretary has a sense of priorities and effective work schedule, the secretary is trained to expect the unexpected and knonws that coping with interruptions is a vital part of office life that if there were no problems, there would be no job, experts frequently fine secretarial functions as one of the most difficult functions to measure and when job description conclude with and such other job as may account for a considerable percentage of the secretary’s working time.


  1. Summary of Review Literature:

In summary of review literature seen that technology has only been able to provide just one brand of equipment for on is office work but has been able to provide a wide range of proven equipment system from which any potential user can chose from.

Pita Ejiofor (2006) was merely stating the obvious stress that high technology that is automatic computers, robots, lesser – laser, fiber option and others are rapidly changing routine of work in all sector more and more workers from secretaries to managers are now using computer word processor and other sophisticated machine for their job.

This view by professor Pita Ejiofor implied that the importance of high technology has already been identified in all sectors. The use of such high technology could not have spread so rapidly if they had not been found to be worthwhile. This means that while these equipment have positive effects on the performance of clerical and secretarial job, their dearth of technology equipment will draw down efficiency and kills official time with physical task of information management frustratingly cumbersome in selected ministries.

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