An Analysis Of Impact Of Warehousing In The Efficient Distribution Of Toilet Soap

An Analysis Of Impact Of Warehousing In The Efficient Distribution Of Toilet Soap (A Case Study Of Orange Drugs).

Don’t keep forever on the public road going only where others have gone, level the beaten trick occasionally and drive into roads. You will be certain to find out something you have never seen before. Ofcourse, it could be a little thing, do not ignore it follow up, explore all around it, one discovery will lead to another and before you will know it, you will have something worth thinking of.

Alexander Graham (1979:52) Said that in recent time were generally recognising that the continuous development of new improve product is the gate way to their survival and growth. They have also swallowed the facts that are done in the days when established product maintain strong market position identifying, research laboratories, efficient marketing strategies who were ready to do away with customers.

New product defined the term new product can cover a multitude of Grace kransher concerned the term as comparing the following small change in the existing brand such as packaging of the addition of new varieties.

Major innovators in a company existing market, a product similar or identical tone already been marketed by a competitor but in a market new to the company concerned a product different from an been marketed in some countries but are already existing brand product which is different from any marketed where (i.e) a through innovation.

Philip Kottler (1980) in his own contribution defined a new product as comprising original products improvement product medications and new stand the firm being into existence through its own.

According to Stanton, the categories of new product can be identified, these are product which are really innovated time unique. These are products such as hair, restovers, or aids ate products for which there is a real but for which there is no existing substituted generally.

Considered satisfactory in this category  he included product which are grade different replacement for existing goods and servicing existing marketing for instance out ponds bag replace cinema bells has also identified innovative products which are new to a firm but not new in market. A classical of this situation is the chevalier brandy in new life beverages Nigeria ltd.

Stanton also view new product as adaptive replacement of existing product involving on significant product involving a significant differential on the existing indecent and charges in its categories.

New products are new varying decree that may be minor or major modification of fame existing but not new to the market.

If new to the firm, they may be closely related or totally unrelated to the firm existing product a question may then be asked what constitute a new product. Bekeri observed that “there can be no hard and fast answer for newest in essentially a subjective concept that depends upon one state of knowledge or encase of firm and its current tense of activities” perhaps is new according to Bekeri is now the intended market perceive that a given product is significantly different from competitive goods being replaced in some characteristics then this is a new product.

The company can obtain new product in two basic ways, it can the go the route of new product development by setting up its own department. It can obtain them through a licensing agreement to produce some one product new life beverage Nigeria ltd; Aban adopted the latter by entering into a licensing agreement with the board of customers and exercise. And vein trade chevalier brandy to the Nigeria market.

In an economy with rising discretionary income intense competition and rapid technological change no company can expect to enjoy a permanent place in the heart and minds of buyers on the basic of its current product line. Nigeria business history includes examples of establishment of company’s product and brand that have been forgotten. Product like becon, hairs, coined jellof rice, kettle tea, bango tea, cocoa powder, igbala car, for bills etc.

It is suggesting that firms should innovate because according to Stanton “A product are like people, the go through a life cycle the grow (incales) and reach decline stage and die”. Companies need to develop continually new product to add and to eventually supersede the existing on the sales volume pattern of sale growth and decline for product are they to through life cycle.


Two points related to the life cycle concept help to explain why product innovation is so important to a company. The first on is that a company present product will inevitably become outdated and they must be replaced, as the sales volume and market to reduce by competitive product. According to Stanton, as the product progresses on the life cycle, its profit gradually decline.

Willian Stanton OPC (981:164), indeed new product is basic profit determinant a firm cannot successfully sale and inferior product over a long period of time. Often it is easy to create a demand at initial sales, but a company needs a good product to get repeat purchase which is needed to study in business new product is essential for sustaining a company expected rate of profit. The company therefore need to carefully its product life cycle so as to join when operation in present market is different and where long item survival is treated. The high incident of consumers new product failure is especially disturbing the question likely to be asked is, did many new product fail? This result due to poor planning and timing in situation where adequate planning in the product development is not need or issued like poor segmentation and positioning, over pricing prevent or when the timing of product or the phase of product development is wrong, the product is bounded to fail.

Product failure could be attributed to be over zealousness or firm or individuals to come out of enthusiastic fail in their responsibilities of developing new products even where research finding are more to the company.

Ugochukwu Okafor (1998:31) identified that where are both external and internal causes include in consistent government policies, smuggling and excessive for foreign in consumer treat advance in technology and its subsequent increasing in change of product substitutes.

According to him, the internal causes are improper application of the marketing tools lack of adequate personnel and insufficient management.

Most production fail because of the lack of sound approach other in development stage of at the into to embark on innovation introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, and declining are the stages of product passes through in product life stewart, reward, tame depot, Mattoon R, or C.T increase customer of consumer selective in their choice of product. This point choice of product this point further attaches to the importance or product innovations consumer increases and as an abundance of product have become  available consumers have become fulfilled in many of their wants. The middle income market is reasonable well feed, cloth, house, transportation and equipment according to those using volume and membership of a social class means to accumulate wealth. The pass through a period of continuous confusion, during which the acquire wholly goods to impress their neighbour.

The importance of product innovation to company survival was further highlighted by Roy he noticed that peak milk company enjoyed a profitable and growing business by producing and selling peak evaporated milk for about eight good years. However contrary to company’s expectation as the market change, sticking to this business would have meant diminishing sales volume that may eventually force the company out of the market.  Introduction Company realised the importance of innovation and ambitions of new product development programmes. Invariably product innovation is necessary in for circumstance where present market will not support desired growth with profitable induction and subsequent management.

Product innovation could come inform of change in packages and labels. This packaging may take the following types.

Packaging may be looked at as being of several different types for example, a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping certain used to ship, store and handle the product or inner packages some identified a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.

Packaging may be described in relation to the type of product devices packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over the counter drug packaging retail food packaging, military material packaging, pharmaceutical packaging etc.

It is sometimes convenient to categories packages by layers or function, “primary”, “secondary”, etc.

Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. The usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and it’s the package which is in direct contact with the contents.

Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging perhaps used to group primary package together.

Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling warehouse storage and transport shipping.

The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers, symbols used on packaging and labelling. Many types of symbols for package labelling are nationally and internationally standardized for consumer packaging symbols exist product certification, trademarks proofs of purchase etc. some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer use and safety, for example, the estimated sign that notes conformance to EU weights and measures accuracy regulations. Examples of environmental and recycling symbols, the resin identification code and the Green Dot.

Bar code, universal product codes and RFCO labels are common to allow automated information management in logistics and retailing, country of origin labelling is often used.

Portion control: Single surveying or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities can be divided into packaging that is more suitable size for individual households.

It also aids the control of inventory, selling sealed one little-bottle of milk, rather than having people being their own to fill themselves.


Technologies related to shipping containers are identification codes, bar codes and Electric Data Interchange (EDI). These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channels. Each has an essential function identification codes within the related product information or serve as keys to other data, bar codes allow for the automated input of identification codes and other data, EDI moves data between trading partners within the distribution channel.

Product labelling: Product innovation is as which strategy involves a lot of activities which producers or sellers apply in order to see that his products are commending reasonable marketing share profitability. Product labelling is a part of the activities found in securing customers patronage through product innovation.

Different authors have different views about product labelling. According to Charles D. Scheme and Ruben M. Smith (1952) page 71 defined product labelling as part of features that adds to noble of unity.

A label supplies information about the product and its sellers and producer. This may be printed as apart of the packaging or it may be on attached to the product Busch and Houston defined product labelling as a communication instrument designed to communicate or transfer information with actual and potential customer’s of a firm’s product.

Pride and Ferrel said that product labelling is an important dimension and related to packaging not only for legal promotion and information reasons but also for legal perspective.

Generally, product labelling provides names of the product, dates of expiring, manufacturing date content etc.

Furthermore, they defined product positioning as the position of a product in the eyes of consumer when compared with other competing brands.

Product Cannibalization: Product cannibalization is one of the important elements involves in product innovation strategy. It is all about how an introduction of new product in the market affected the already existing product. Sometimes, the effects may be negative in the other hand; the introduction may have positive implication on the existing products.

As Bustch and Michael J. Houston put it, product cannibalization is the process in which a company derived from the sales of the company’s existing product, it means that the sales potentially of the introduced product is denied from the sales.

Again, scheme and Ruben M. Smith described product cannibalization as the danger that addition of the new product way into the sales of already existing products. Emphasis is laid here on the negative implication at product cannibalization; product may lose its sales capability due to an introduction of a new product. Product cannibalization as viewed by is generally, through something used by some companies, when they want to replace an old or unprofitable product with a new product. The two (old and new) products must be the same product especially in need or want satisfaction so that the introduction of the new product, on this manner, firms product will be eliminated from the market. At times, firm’s uses product cannibalization introduced a competition between two similar products within the firms.

Product Deletion: This is another important aspect of securing customer patronage through product innovation (New life Beverage Nigeria Limited Aba). It is all about the removal of a product, product to be removed or deleted by an old product.

Product deleted must be surrounded by some certain circumstances.

According to Bustch and Michael J. Houston (1940) defined product deletion as a carefully dropping of a product at the decline state of its life cycle. It does not mean that only products at declining stage would be remove or dropped or deleted. At times as had been mentioned earlier, new products can be deleted if situation prove so. It is necessary that any product that insures more cost to the company than its benefits should be deleted out of the market regardless of its stage in the life cycle.

Kenneth P. Davis called producers deletion as product elimination, he saw product deletion as a strategy which will only be adopted when product have developing problems.

Product deletion is also defined Pride and Ferrel as getting rid of some products. Although, Pride and Ferrel failed to mention when the ride or deletion is to be done since product deletion secures when a product have developing problems are noticed in this view.

Ben Emiss in (1948) defined product striking or taking out of old products out of the market at the decline, storage of the product life cycle.

Product positioning: Product positioning as defined by Pride and Ferrel is directed towards trying to create and maintain a firms intended product concept in consumer mind.

Positioning is putting the product in a manner that gives the product all desired characteristics a consumer want from the product. Marketing the consumer to see the product as possessing all wanted or desired qualities or attributes. Also, product positioning is seen as an image given or attached to a particular image product makes consumer to see the product as uses the opportunities of positioning the product to include these image attributes.

This is why Charles scheme and Rubben Smith said that the various features and benefits on a product gives it an image which consumers and marketers try to position in relation to competing products and other products in the product line.


The product life cycle was presented in this review, with its appropriate diagram.

These causes of product failure were also out line viz: internal and external causes. The case of peak milk company was also discussed. Eventually, the company realized the important of product innovation and embark on an ambitious new product development programmes.

Finally, product innovation according to this authors create new impression about the product to the consumer’s who does not only rely on the physical structure of the product rather also on the service at tends to render.

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